Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate use of plasmonic resonant phenomena combined with strong field localization to enhance efficiency of confining optical fields in a Si waveguide. Our approach utilizes a plasmonic resonant nano-focusing-antenna (RNFA), that simultaneously supports several focusing mechanisms in a single nanostructure, integrated with a lossless Si waveguide utilized with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, to achieve a sub-diffraction limited focusing with a nanoscale (deeply subwavelength) spot size. The metallic RNFA effectively converts an incoming propagating waveguide mode to a localized resonant plasmon mode in an ultrasmall volume in all 3 dimensions. The near-field optical measurements of the fabricated RNFA using heterodyne near-field scanning optical microscope (H-NSOM) validate the theoretical predictions showing strong optical field localization.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (3)

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 315, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (8)

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30,893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,137404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alu, R A.

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W. A.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cinchetti, M.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

Drezet, A.

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gloskovskii, A.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

Hooper, R.

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, G.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kreiter, M.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

Kuipers, L.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langhammer, C.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, T. W.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mejia, Y. X.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C. D.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mountfield, K. R.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nepjiko, S. A.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nesci, A.

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 315, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelhos, K.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Preist, T. W.

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rochholz, H.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rokitski, R.

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schonhense, G.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwind, M.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sendur, I. K.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

Stepanov, A. L.

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,137404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, M. W.

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zoric, I.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (7)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,137404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).

Science (4)

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 315, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Gelman, J. B. Carlin, H. S. Stern, and D. B. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis (Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2004).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1998).

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