Abstract

We present analysis and preliminary laboratory testing of a real-time dual-conjugate adaptive optics (DCAO) instrument for ophthalmology that will enable wide-field high resolution imaging of the retina in vivo. The setup comprises five retinal guide stars (GS) and two deformable mirrors (DM), one conjugate to the pupil and one conjugate to a plane close to the retina. The DCAO instrument has a closed-loop wavefront sensing wavelength of 834 nm and an imaging wavelength of 575 nm. It incorporates an array of collimator lenses to spatially filter the light from all guide stars using one adjustable iris, and images the Hartmann patterns of multiple reference sources on a single detector. Zemax simulations were performed at 834 nm and 575 nm with the Navarro 99 and the Liou-Brennan eye models. Two correction alternatives were evaluated; conventional single conjugate AO (SCAO, using one GS and a pupil DM) and DCAO (using multiple GS and two DM). Zemax simulations at 575 nm based on the Navarro 99 eye model show that the diameter of the corrected field of view for diffraction-limited imaging (Strehl ≥ 0.8) increases from 1.5 deg with SCAO to 6.5 deg using DCAO. The increase for the less stringent condition of a wavefront error of 1 rad or less (Strehl ≥ 0.37) is from 3 deg with SCAO to approximately 7.4 deg using DCAO. Corresponding results for the Liou-Brennan eye model are 3.1 deg (SCAO) and 8.2 deg (DCAO) for Strehl ≥ 0.8, and 4.8 deg (SCAO) and 9.6 deg (DCAO) for Strehl ≥ 0.37. Potential gain in corrected field of view with DCAO is confirmed both by laboratory experiments on a model eye and by preliminary in vivo imaging of a human eye.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, "Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1538-1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

A. V. Goncharov, J. C. Dainty, S. Esposito, and A. Puglisi, "Laboratory MCAO test-bed for developing wavefront sensing concepts," Opt. Express 13, 5580-5590 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dalimier and J. C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express. 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. von der Lühe, T. Berkefeld, and D. Soltau, "Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics at the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife," C. R. Physique 6, 1139-1147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

P. A. Knutsson and M. Owner-Petersen, "Emulation of dual-conjugate adaptive optics on an 8-m class telescope," Opt. Express 11, 2231-2237 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vis. 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

1990 (2)

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1982 (1)

1975 (1)

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing errors and their correction," Astrophys J. 198, 605-615 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, "The Possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacif. 65, 229-236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points," Proc. R. Soc. B. 112, 428-450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Y. Benny, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, E. N. Ribak, and P. Artal, "Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1538-1544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vis. 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ashman, R.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Bedggood, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. B. Metha, "Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model," Opt. Express 14, 8019-8030 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, "The Possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacif. 65, 229-236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bagnara, P.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Baruffolo, A.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Bedggood, P.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedggood, P. A.

Benny, Y.

Berkefeld, T.

O. von der Lühe, T. Berkefeld, and D. Soltau, "Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics at the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife," C. R. Physique 6, 1139-1147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berrio, E.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vis. 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bescós, J.

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, C.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brast, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Brennan, N. A.

Carroll, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points," Proc. R. Soc. B. 112, 428-450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daaboul, M.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, J. C.

E. Dalimier and J. C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express. 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Goncharov, J. C. Dainty, S. Esposito, and A. Puglisi, "Laboratory MCAO test-bed for developing wavefront sensing concepts," Opt. Express 13, 5580-5590 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalimier, E.

E. Dalimier and J. C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express. 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delabre, B.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing errors and their correction," Astrophys J. 198, 605-615 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Dunlop, C.

Escudero-Sanz, I.

Esposito, S.

Fedrigo, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Foy, R.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29-31 (1985).

Frank, C.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Fried, D. L.

Goncharov, A. V.

Guirao, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vis. 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, P.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilton, A.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howarth, P. A.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubin, N.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Johnston, D. C.

Jolissaint, L.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, J.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keskin, O.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knutsson, P. A.

Kolb, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29-31 (1985).

Langlois, M.

Liang, J.

Liou, H.-L.

Lizon, J.-L.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Love, G.

Manzanera, S.

Marchesi, M.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Marchetti, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Metha, A.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metha, A. B.

Miller, D. T.

Myers, R.

Navarro, R.

Neitz, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberti, S.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Owner-Petersen, M.

Prieto, P. M.

Puglisi, A.

Reiss, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Ribak, E. N.

Richardson, H.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santamaría, J.

Santos, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Saunter, C.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, G.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Bedggood, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. B. Metha, "Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model," Opt. Express 14, 8019-8030 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soenke, C.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Soltau, D.

O. von der Lühe, T. Berkefeld, and D. Soltau, "Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics at the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife," C. R. Physique 6, 1139-1147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points," Proc. R. Soc. B. 112, 428-450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Still, D. L.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tordo, S.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

von der Lühe, O.

O. von der Lühe, T. Berkefeld, and D. Soltau, "Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics at the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife," C. R. Physique 6, 1139-1147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, B.

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. M.

Williams, D. R.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vis. 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29-31 (1985).

Astrophys J. (1)

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing errors and their correction," Astrophys J. 198, 605-615 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique (1)

O. von der Lühe, T. Berkefeld, and D. Soltau, "Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics at the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife," C. R. Physique 6, 1139-1147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, "Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Vis. (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vis. 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Express. (1)

E. Dalimier and J. C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express. 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. B. (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points," Proc. R. Soc. B. 112, 428-450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Wallace, C. Bradley, H. Richardson, J. Kennedy, O. Keskin, P. Hampton, D. Robertson, L. Jolissaint, and A. Hilton, "Dual conjugate adaptive optics testbed: progress report," Proc. SPIE 5169, 255-261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacif. (1)

H. W. Babcock, "The Possibility of compensating astronomical seeing," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacif. 65, 229-236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger (1)

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, J. Santos, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and The CAMCAO Consortium," On-sky Testing of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator," The Messenger,  129, 8-13 (2007).

Vision Res. (1)

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration," Vision Res. 30, 33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. B. Howell, Handbook of CCD Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2000)

D. Landell, Implementation and optimization of a multi conjugate adaptive optics software system for vision research (Göteborg, Chalmers University of Technology 2005).

I. Newton, Opticks, or A treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections & colours of light (New York, Dover publ. 1952).

J. M. Beckers, "Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics," in ESO Conference and Workshop on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation. Garching, Germany: European Southern Observatory (ESO) (1988).

I. Sharf, K. Bell, D. Crampton, J. Fitzsimmons, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, B. Lee, H. Richardson, D. van der Kamp, and J.-P. Veran, "Design of the dual conjugate adaptive optics test-bed," in Beyond conventional adaptive optics: a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes. Venice, Italy: European Southern Observatory (ESO) (2001).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of experimental system layout. Only marginal rays of the axial star are shown. SLD, superluminescent diode; WBS, wedge beamsplitter; RR, retro reflector; DM1, deformable mirror 1; DM2, deformable mirror 2; FT, fixation target; CLA, collimating lens array; CCD, wavefront sensor camera. P, pupil plane; R, retinal image plane. P’ denotes a split pupil plane and R’ a collapsed retinal image plane of the five different GS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fundus photograph with an inset of the actual FOV and GS positions. Retinal center-to-center separation of peripheral GS from central GS is 3.1 deg (880 μm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Side view of GS light paths through the optics of the eye (left). Only the blue (center) rays from the central GS are used in SCAO correction. Also shown are the GS footprints on DM1 (top right) and DM2 (bottom right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Layout of the multiobject wavefront sensor with spatial filtering with one adjustable iris (left). This arrangement makes it possible to use a single camera to image the Hartmann patterns of multiple reference sources. Simulated image of Hartmann spot arrangement on the wavefront sensor camera (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Strehl maps for the Navarro 99 eye model of the corrected FOV obtained with SCAO and DCAO at wavelengths of 834 nm and 575 nm (top row and bottom row, respectively). Each field is 6.7 deg (1.95 mm) square in size.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Plot for the Navarro 99 eye model of simulated image plane Strehl ratio vs. field angle (vertical meridian) for SCAO and DCAO at 834 nm (left) and at 575 nm for the refocused system (right). Dashed lines indicate diffraction-limited performance, i.e. Strehl ≤ 0.8 (upper), and the less stringent criteria of Strehl ≤ 0.37 (lower).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Strehl maps for the Liou-Brennan eye model of the corrected FOV obtained with SCAO and DCAO at wavelengths of 834 nm and 575 nm (top row and bottom row, respectively). Each field is 6.7 deg (1.95 mm) square in size.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Plot for the Liou-Brennan eye model of simulated image plane Strehl ratio vs. field angle (vertical meridian) for SCAO and DCAO at 834 nm (left) and at 575 nm for the refocused system (right). Dashed lines indicate diffraction-limited performance, i.e. Strehl ≤ 0.8 (upper), and the less stringent criteria of Strehl ≤ 0.37 (lower).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental through focus images of the five separate GS paths passing through the WFS pinhole (middle image). See Fig. 4 for a detailed description of the WFS spatial filter.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Images of model retina with 0.5 D defocus introduced by the Badal focus corrector and a phase screen at DM2. FOV corresponds to 6.7 × 6.7 deg2 (1.95 × 1.95 mm2) on the retina. Top row (a) is without AO correction, middle row (b) is with SCAO correction, and bottom row (c) is with DCAO correction. Numbered insets centered on GS positions in the original images to the left are shown magnified to the right. GS positions are marked with a white cross.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Retinal images of foveal region of subject TW; upper (a) uncorrected, middle (b) with SCAO correction, and lower (c) with DCAO correction. FOV corresponds to 6.7 × 6.7 deg2 (1.95 × 1.95 mm2) on the retina. GS positions are marked with a white cross. Numbered insets in the original images to the left are shown magnified to the right. Insets 1–3 are centered on GS positions. Insets 4–5 are magnifications of identical regions in the three retinal images.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Log scaled power spectra with equal inverted gray scales of subregions 4a–c and 5a–c from Fig.11.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c = G + s
s i / c j = [ s i ( c j + ) s i ( c j ) ] / [ ( c j + ) ( c j ) ]
G = UΛV T
G + = + U T

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