Abstract

Optical coherence tomography has allowed unprecedented visualization of ocular structures, but the identity of some visible objects within slices remains unknown. This study reconstructs a number of those objects in 3D space, allowing their identification by observation of their 3D morphology. In the case mottling deep within image slices through the optic disc, C-mode imaging provided visualization of the appearance and distribution of laminar pores. In the case of white spots and streaks sometimes observed in image slices through the cornea, C-mode imaging contoured to the path of those white spots allowed their visual identification as nerves extending radially into the cornea from the limbus. White spots observed in ultrahigh resolution retinal image slices were identified as blood within retinal capillaries. C-mode contour-corrected imaging of three-dimensional structures provided the identification of previously unidentified structures visible in cross-sectional image slices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  4. C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  5. U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Häusler and M. W. Linder, "Coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "En-face OCT imaging of the retina using path modulation introduced by the transversal scanning mirror," in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. Fujimoto and M. Patterson eds., Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper AMC4.
  13. M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).
  17. Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 15, 7538 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, "In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid," Opt. Express 14, 4403 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, "In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-μm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 15, 6121 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, "In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid," Opt. Express 14, 4403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Linder, "Coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Dolezal, C.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

Drexler, W.

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gnad, H. D.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Linder, "Coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyle Park, B.

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, J.

Juchem, M.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

Kim, S.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E. C.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lim, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linder, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Linder, "Coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Makita, S.

Miura, M.

Morgner, U.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorpik, F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Wang, J.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. (1)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, N. Nassif, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography in ophthalmology," Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.123 (2006).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, and H. D. Gnad, "Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 1886 (1993).
[PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 5103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Häusler and M. W. Linder, "Coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry," Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito,  et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "En-face OCT imaging of the retina using path modulation introduced by the transversal scanning mirror," in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. Fujimoto and M. Patterson eds., Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper AMC4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

B-scans of the macula of a normal healthy eye imaged with OCT (left, fast macular scan, Stratus OCT®, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin CA), and a SdOCT (right, Bioptigen, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC).

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

(A) A closer look at the SdOCT B-scan image in Fig. 1 shows (B) the visualization of small white granular-appearing structures (arrows) in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the retina. (C) Similarly, faint structures appear (arrows) to be visualized in the posterior optic nerve head.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Projections of SdOCT 3D scans of peripapillary retina (left) and cornea and surrounding lids and eyelashes (right)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A C-mode image (left) contains an en-face view of a 3D dataset, but isolates reflection to a thin layer of tissue. In this figure, the thin blue line on the B-scan (right) shows the location of retinal nerve fiber layer imaged by C-mode on the left. The cross-sectional retinal B-scan slice (right) cuts through the retinal layers on a horizontal line superior to the macula (red line, left).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Choroidal and scleral structures are observed posterior to the retinal pigment epithelium/photoreceptor complex in a B-scan retinal image, and fade to noise in the deepest points of the image.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Focusing deep within the optic nerve head reveals pre-laminar and lamina cribrosa structures, observed here as vertical stripes in a B-scan.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

In this series of cross-sectional B-scan images, a number of hyper-reflective structures within the stroma are visible (white arrows). The 3D B-scan sequence is linked (View 1). In addition to the slices seen above, it also contains an en-face view of the cornea to the left of the slices.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

C-mode slab images of the outer plexiform layer of the perimacular retina review a detailed image of the retinal capillaries. Note that blood makes the capillaries appear white.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Macular capillaries visualized by fluorescein angiography.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

A C-mode slice below the retina (upper right) creates an image of the choriocapillaris (upper left). Inverting the image (black/white inversion, bottom) facilitates visualization of the vasculature (lower left, (View 2). The 3D C-mode sequence provides a fly-through view beginning at the posterior level of the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium complex, and extending through the large vessels of the choroid. The images are black/white inverted, appearing similar to the lower left frame at the level of the choriocapillaris.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Pores in the lamina cribrosa (black spots, upper left) are clearly visible in a normal subject with a large disc (upper left). Note the enhanced visualization on the temporal side of the disc compared to the clinical view provided by the fundus photo on bottom. The C-mode slab is located in the lamina cribrosa/pre-lamina region of the optic nerve (upper right). The 3D dataset is presented as a C-mode sequence (View 3). The upper portion of this figure is one of the slices from the 3D dataset, with the stack of C-mode slices on the left, and the single frame repeated on the right.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

A customized C-mode slab positioned by hand along the curvature of the tissue reveals a continuous highly reflective structure extending from the limbus into the cornea (white arrows). The border between the cornea and limbus is marked with a white line in the upper left frame. Links are provided to both the B-scan (View 1) and C-mode (View 4) image sequences.

Datasets

Datasets associated with ISP articles are stored in an online database called MIDAS. Clicking a "View" link in an OSA ISP article will launch the ISP software (if installed) and pull the relevant data from MIDAS. Visit MIDAS to browse and download the datasets directly. A package containing the PDF article and full datasets is available in MIDAS for offline viewing.

Questions or Problems? See the ISP FAQ. Already used the ISP software? Take a quick survey to tell us what you think.

Metrics