Abstract

We have successfully imaged the retinal tumor in a mouse model using an ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) designed for small animal retinal imaging. For segmentation of the tumor boundaries and calculation of the tumor volume, we developed a novel segmentation algorithm. The algorithm is based on parametric deformable models (active contours) and is driven by machine learning-based region classification, namely a Conditional Random Field. With this algorithm we are able to obtain the tumor boundaries automatically, while the user can specify additional constraints (points on the boundary) to correct the segmentation result, if needed. The system and algorithm were successfully applied to studies on retinal tumor progression and monitoring treatment effects quantitatively in a mouse model of retinoblastoma.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, "Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie. 44, 2560-2562 (2003).

2001

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

1999

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

1995

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

Tamboli, M. J. Podgor, and J. W. Horm, "The incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States: 1974 through 1985," Archives Ophthalmology 108, 128-132 (1990).

J. J. Windle, D. M. Albert, and J. M. O'Brien, "Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice," Nature 343, 665-669 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active contour models," International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Remtulla and P. E. Hallett, "A schematic eye for the mouse, and comparisons with the rat," Vision Research 25, 21-31 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

T. W. Pendergrass and S. Davis, "Incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States," Archives Ophthalmology 98, 1204-1210 (1980).

Albert, D. M.

J. J. Windle, D. M. Albert, and J. M. O'Brien, "Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice," Nature 343, 665-669 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, S. K.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bohr, D. F.

E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, "Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie. 44, 2560-2562 (2003).

Boutrid, H.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bursell, S. E.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campochiaro, P. A.

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cebulla, C. M.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clermont, A.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohan, E.

E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, "Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie. 44, 2560-2562 (2003).

Davis, S.

T. W. Pendergrass and S. Davis, "Incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States," Archives Ophthalmology 98, 1204-1210 (1980).

Davisson, M.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Duan, Y.

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, F.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, W. J.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez-Pola, C.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Gregori, G.

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-444.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hackam, A.

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, P. E.

S. Remtulla and P. E. Hallett, "A schematic eye for the mouse, and comparisons with the rat," Vision Research 25, 21-31 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauswirth, W. W.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Hawes, N. L.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Heckenlively, J. R.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hori, K.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Horio, N.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Hunter, K.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Jiao, S.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-444.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jockovich, M. E.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

John, S. W. M.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Jokelainen, P. T.

E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, "Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie. 44, 2560-2562 (2003).

Kachi, S.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Kamp, G.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kass, M.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active contour models," International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, R.

Ko, T. H.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lem, J.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewin, A. S.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Li, Q.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melia, M.

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Murray, T. G.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, J. M.

J. J. Windle, D. M. Albert, and J. M. O'Brien, "Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice," Nature 343, 665-669 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, Y.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Pearch, A. C.

E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, "Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie. 44, 2560-2562 (2003).

Pendergrass, T. W.

T. W. Pendergrass and S. Davis, "Incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States," Archives Ophthalmology 98, 1204-1210 (1980).

Piña, Y.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C.A.

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D. H.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Remtulla, S.

S. Remtulla and P. E. Hallett, "A schematic eye for the mouse, and comparisons with the rat," Vision Research 25, 21-31 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruggeri, M.

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saishin, Y.

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.S.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Song, Q. H.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamboli,

Tamboli, M. J. Podgor, and J. W. Horm, "The incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States: 1974 through 1985," Archives Ophthalmology 108, 128-132 (1990).

Terasaki, H.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Terzopoulos, D.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active contour models," International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Timmers, A. M.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Vinores, S. A.

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehbe, H.

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Windle, J. J.

J. J. Windle, D. M. Albert, and J. M. O'Brien, "Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice," Nature 343, 665-669 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witkin, A.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active contour models," International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, E.

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

Archives Ophthalmology

T. W. Pendergrass and S. Davis, "Incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States," Archives Ophthalmology 98, 1204-1210 (1980).

Tamboli, M. J. Podgor, and J. W. Horm, "The incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States: 1974 through 1985," Archives Ophthalmology 108, 128-132 (1990).

N. Horio, S. Kachi, K. Hori, Y. Okamoto, E. Yamamoto, H. Terasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Progressive change of optical coherence tomography scans in retinal degeneration slow mice," Archives Ophthalmology 119,1329-1332 (2001).

International Journal of Computer Vision

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active contour models," International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, M. Wojtkowski, M. Carvalho, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, Q. H. Song, J. Lem, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive volumetric Imaging and morphometry of the rodent retina with high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5522-5528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruggeri, H. Wehbe, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, M. E. Jockovich, A. Hackam, Y. Duan, and C.A. Puliafito, "In Vivo Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Imaging of Rodent Retina with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 1808-1814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie.

E. Cohan, A. C. Pearch, P. T. Jokelainen, and D. F. Bohr, "Optic disc imaging in conscious rats and mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Scie. 44, 2560-2562 (2003).

J. Cell. Physiol.

Y. Saishin, Y. Saishin, K. Takahashi, M. Melia, S. A. Vinores, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Inhibition of protein kinase c decreases prostaglandin-induced breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier," J. Cell. Physiol. 195, 210-219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol Vis.

N. L. Hawes, R.S. Smith, B. Chang, M. Davisson, J. R. Heckenlively, and S. W. M. John, "Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes," Mol Vis. 5, 22-29 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nature

J. J. Windle, D. M. Albert, and J. M. O'Brien, "Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice," Nature 343, 665-669 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Open Ophthalmology Journal

C. M. Cebulla, M. E. Jockovich, H. Boutrid, Y. Piña, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, S. K. Bhattacharya, W. J. Feuer, and T. G. Murray, "Lack of Effect of SU1498, an Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2, in a Transgenic Murine Model of Retinoblastoma," The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2, 65-70 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vision Research

S. Remtulla and P. E. Hallett, "A schematic eye for the mouse, and comparisons with the rat," Vision Research 25, 21-31 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Scie.

Q. Li, A. M. Timmers, K. Hunter, C. Gonzalez-Pola, A. S. Lewin, D. H. Reitze, W. W. Hauswirth, "Noninvasive imaging by optical coherence tomography to monitor Retinal Degeneration in the mouse," Investigative Ophthal.Visual Scie. 42, 2981-2989 (2001).

Other

Hartl, T. Ko, R. K. Ghanta, W. Drexler, A. Clermont, S. E. Bursell, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the quantification of retinal structure in normal and transgenic mice," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S793, 2001 (ARVO Abstract #4252).

S. M. Shah, E. L. e Silva, Y. Salshin, S. F. Hackett, F. Woreta, and P. A. Campochiaro, "Comparison of retinal thickness of mice retina with stratus OCT and histology," ARVO Abstract #2375, Fort Lauderdale (2004).

K. Kim, G. N. Maguluri, M. Puorishaag, Y. Umino, R. B. Barlow, and J. F. De Boer, "Optical coherence tomography for mouse retinal imaging," ARVO Abstract #2923, Fort Lauderdale (2006).

G. Tsechpenakis and J. Wang, "CRF-based Segmentation of Human Tear Meniscus Obtained with Optical Coherence Tomography," in Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Image Processing, San Antonio, TX, September 2007.

G. Tsechpenakis, and D. Metaxas, "CRF-driven Implicit Deformable Model," in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Minneapolis, MN, June 2007.

G. Tsechpenakis, J. Wang, B. Mayer, and D. Metaxas, "Coupling CRFs and Deformable Models for 3D Medical Image Segmentation," in Proc. IEEE Mathematical Methods in Biomedical Image Analysis, IEEE Int’l Conf. on Computer Vision, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Oct. 2007.

G. Tsechpenakis, B. Lujan, O. Martinez, G. Gregori, and P. J. Rosenfeld, "Geometric Deformable Model Driven by CoCRFs: Application to Optical Coherence Tomography," in Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, New York City, NY, Sept. 2008.

O. Martinez and G. Tsechpenakis, "Integration of Active Learning in a Collaborative CRF," in Proc. IEEE Online Learning for Classification, IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Anchorage, AK, Jun. 2008.
[PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional (X-Y view) OCT image of a normal Balb/c mouse retina. The spatial location of the image is distal to the optic disc. All the intraretinal layers can be recognized and labeled in the image. The 3D data (View 1) consist of 512 (X)×500 (Y)×128 (Z) pixels, covering a volume of 1×0.56×1 mm3. RNFL/GC: retinal nerve fiber layer/ganglion cell layer; IP: inner plexiform layer; IN: inner nuclear layer; OP: outer plexiform layer; ON: outer nuclear layer; ELM: external limiting membrane; RPE: retinal pigment epithelium.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Histologic image of the retinal tumor (RT) in the inner nuclear layer of an LHβTag transgenic mouse; (b) Cross-sectional OCT image crossing the tumor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OCT images of the retina of a LHβTag transgenic mouse as control in the longitudinal study. The images are located at the same position on the registered fundus and were acquired at the 10th (a, View 2), 11th (b, View 3), and 12th (c, View 4) week of age. The estimated tumor boundaries of the OCT images (a), (b), and (c) by using our segmentation method are shown in (d), (e), and (f), respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OCT cross-sectional images of the retina of a LHβTag transgenic mouse treated with SU1498 in the longitudinal study. The images are located at the same position on the registered fundus and acquired at the 10th (a, View 5), 11th (b, View 6), and 12th (c, View 7) week. The estimated tumor boundaries in (a), (b), and (c) by using our segmentation method are shown in (d), (e), and (f), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The region of the tumor is selected and highlighted by a yellow box; (b) The result of the segmentation is displayed and no corrections to the estimated boundary were needed. (C) – (F) Example when the tumor was not segmented 100% satisfactorily. (c) The tumor region is selected by a yellow box on the OCT image; (d) The estimated boundary in the upper right region of the tumor is not accurate due to missing contrast between the tumor and the surrounding region; (e) Manual adjustment (yellow line) allowed to correct the estimated boundary and the final result is displayed in (f).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Progressive growth of the tumor size in the retina of the control mouse and the mouse treated with SU1498. Tumor volume was measured at three different stages of the disease: the 10th, 11th and 12th week of age.

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Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Tumor volumes calculated from the OCT images for control and treated mice.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ω = [ 0 , 1 ] 2 ,
s C ( s ) = { x ( s ) , y ( s ) } ,
E int ( C ) = Ω [ ω 1 ( s ) C s 2 + ω 2 ( s ) 2 C 2 s 2 ] d s
C * , L * = arg max ( C , L ) P ( C , L | M ) ,
P ( C , L | M ) P ( C ) · P ( M ) · P ( L | C ) · P ( L | M ) ,

Metrics