Abstract

Deterministic Aperiodic (DA) arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles are proposed as a novel approach for the engineering of reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. A set of DA and periodic arrays of cylindrical and triangular Au nanoparticles with diameters ranging between 50–110 nm and inter-particle separations between 25–100 nm were fabricated by e-beam lithography on quartz substrates. Using a molecular monolayer of pMA (p-mercaptoaniline) as a Raman reporter, we show that higher values of SERS enhancement factors can be achieved in DA structures compared to their periodic counterparts, and discuss the specific scaling rules of DA arrays with different morphologies. Electromagnetic field calculations based on the semi-analytical generalized Mie theory (GMT) fully support our findings and demonstrate the importance of morphology-dependent diffractive coupling (long-range interactions) for the engineering of the SERS response of DA arrays. Finally, we discuss optimization strategies based on the control of particles sizes and shapes, and we demonstrate that spatially-averaged SERS enhancement factors of the order of ~ 107 can be reproducibly obtained using DA arrays of Au nano-triangles. The ability to rigorously design lithographically fabricated DA arrays of metal nanoparticles enables the optimization and control of highly localized plasmonic fields for a variety of chip-scale devices, such as more reproducible SERS substrates, label-free bio-sensors and non-linear elements for nano-plasmonics.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (8)

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y.-P. Zhao, "Revisiting the separation dependent surface enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, F. Cajko, I. Tsukerman, and M. I. Stockman, "Electrodynamic effects in plasmonic nanolenses," Phys. Rev. B 77, 115419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, "Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays," Nano Lett. 8, 1923-1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, "Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, "Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in determinsitic aperiodic structures," Nano Lett. 8, 2423-2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, "Novel nanostructures for SERS biosensing," Nano Today 3, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dallapiccola, A. Gopinath, F. Stellacci, and L. Dal Negro, "Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles," Opt. Express 16, 5544-5555 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5544.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. R. Ward, N. K. Grady, C. S. Levin, N. J. Halas, Y. P. Wu, P. Nordlander, and D. Natelson, "Electro-migrated nanoscale gaps for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Nano Lett. 7, 1396-1400 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, "Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267-297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. M. Jarvis, A. Brooker, and R. Goodacre, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for the rapid discrimination of bacteria," Faraday Discuss. 132, 281-292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigorous justification of the |E|4 enhancement factor in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Khlebtsov, A. Melnikov, V. Zharov, and N. Khlebtsov, "Absorption and scattering of light by a dimer of metal nanospheres: comparison of dipole and multipole approaches," Nanotechnol. 17, 1437-1445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G.L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano. Lett. 5, 119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Delfino, A. R. Bizzarri, and S. Cannistraro, "Single-molecule detection of yeast cytochrome c by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Biophys. Chem. 113, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, M. A. Young, D. A. Stuart, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy biosensors: excitation spectroscopy for optimisation of substrates fabricated by nanosphere lithography," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 152, 195-206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," PNAS.  101, 17930-17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, "Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays," Opt. Express. 12, 3422-3427 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-15-3422.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Z. Wang, S. Pan, T. D. Krauss, H. Du, and L. J. Rothberg, "The structural basis for giant enhancement enabling single-molecule Raman scattering," PNAS.  100, 8636-8643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, "Self-Similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Moskovits, L. L. Tay, J. Yang, and T. Haslett, "SERS and the single molecule," Top. Appl. Phys. 82, 215-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, M. Salerno, G. Schider, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Controlling the optical response of regular arrays of gold particles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B,  65, 075419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, "Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection," Science,  297, 1536-1540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Gunnarsson, E.J. Bjerneld, H. Xu, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, "Interparticle coupling effects in nanofabricated substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 802-804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721-4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. J. Oldenburg, S. L. Westcott, R. D. Averitt, and N. J. Halas, "Surface enhanced Raman scattering in the near infrared using metal nanoshell substrates," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4729-4735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Gunnarsson, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, H. Xu, J. Bjerneld, and M. Käll, "Optimizing nanofabricated substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281-R6284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Mohri, S. Matsushita, M. Inoue, and K. Yoshikawa, "Desorption of 4-Aminobenzenethiol bound to a gold surface," Langmuir. 14, 2343-2347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science,  275, 1102-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. J. García-Vidal and J. B. Pendry, "Collective theory for surface enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1163-1166 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Vietz, and W. M. Hill, "Periodically structured metallic substrates for SERS," Sens. Actuators B. 51, 285-291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Xu, "Electromagnetic scattering by an aggregate of spheres," Appl. Opt. 34, 4573-4588 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, "Optical properties of fractal clusters (susceptibility, surface enhanced Raman scattering by impurities)," Sov. Phys. JETP. 65, 287-294 (1987).

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, "Surface second-harmonic generation from metal island films and microlithographic structures," Phys. Rev. B 24, 849-856 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, "Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces." J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023-3037 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Kerker, D.-S. Wang, and H. Chew, "Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by molecules adsorbed at spherical particles," Appl. Opt. 19, 3373-3388 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode," J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, "Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode," Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163-166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

C. V. Raman, "A change of wave-length in light scattering," Nature 121, 619-619 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allison, K. J.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apell, P.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aubard, J.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, M. Salerno, G. Schider, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Controlling the optical response of regular arrays of gold particles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B,  65, 075419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, M. Salerno, G. Schider, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Controlling the optical response of regular arrays of gold particles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B,  65, 075419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721-4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, S. L. Westcott, R. D. Averitt, and N. J. Halas, "Surface enhanced Raman scattering in the near infrared using metal nanoshell substrates," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4729-4735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, "Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays," Opt. Express. 12, 3422-3427 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-15-3422.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bek, A.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
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K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, "Self-Similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
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Bergman, J. G.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, "Surface second-harmonic generation from metal island films and microlithographic structures," Phys. Rev. B 24, 849-856 (1981).
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Bizzarri, A. R.

I. Delfino, A. R. Bizzarri, and S. Cannistraro, "Single-molecule detection of yeast cytochrome c by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Biophys. Chem. 113, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bjerneld, E.J.

L. Gunnarsson, E.J. Bjerneld, H. Xu, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, "Interparticle coupling effects in nanofabricated substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 802-804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bjerneld, J.

L. Gunnarsson, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, H. Xu, J. Bjerneld, and M. Käll, "Optimizing nanofabricated substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, "Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in determinsitic aperiodic structures," Nano Lett. 8, 2423-2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bright, R. M.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooker, A.

R. M. Jarvis, A. Brooker, and R. Goodacre, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for the rapid discrimination of bacteria," Faraday Discuss. 132, 281-292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cajko, F.

J. Dai, F. Cajko, I. Tsukerman, and M. I. Stockman, "Electrodynamic effects in plasmonic nanolenses," Phys. Rev. B 77, 115419 (2008).
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Cannistraro, S.

I. Delfino, A. R. Bizzarri, and S. Cannistraro, "Single-molecule detection of yeast cytochrome c by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Biophys. Chem. 113, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y. W. C.

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, "Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection," Science,  297, 1536-1540 (2002).
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Chew, H.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, F. Cajko, I. Tsukerman, and M. I. Stockman, "Electrodynamic effects in plasmonic nanolenses," Phys. Rev. B 77, 115419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, "Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in determinsitic aperiodic structures," Nano Lett. 8, 2423-2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, "Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dallapiccola, A. Gopinath, F. Stellacci, and L. Dal Negro, "Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles," Opt. Express 16, 5544-5555 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5544.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L Kaplan, L. Dal Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, "Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films," Advanced Mater. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800011.

Dallapiccola, R.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281-R6284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deinum, G.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281-R6284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delfino, I.

I. Delfino, A. R. Bizzarri, and S. Cannistraro, "Single-molecule detection of yeast cytochrome c by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Biophys. Chem. 113, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721-4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dluhy, R. A.

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, "Novel nanostructures for SERS biosensing," Nano Today 3, 31-37 (2008).
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Du, H.

Z. Wang, S. Pan, T. D. Krauss, H. Du, and L. J. Rothberg, "The structural basis for giant enhancement enabling single-molecule Raman scattering," PNAS.  100, 8636-8643 (2003).
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Emery, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science,  275, 1102-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, "Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays," Opt. Express. 12, 3422-3427 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-15-3422.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etchegoin, P. G.

E. C. Le Ru and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigorous justification of the |E|4 enhancement factor in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
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Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281-R6284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felidj, N.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, M. Salerno, G. Schider, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Controlling the optical response of regular arrays of gold particles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B,  65, 075419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, "Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, "Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in determinsitic aperiodic structures," Nano Lett. 8, 2423-2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, "Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode," Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163-166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. G.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
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Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
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F. J. García-Vidal and J. B. Pendry, "Collective theory for surface enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1163-1166 (1996).
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D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Wei, "Resonant field enhancements from metal nanoparticle arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 153-158 (2004).
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J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, "Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces." J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023-3037 (1980).
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Glass, A. M.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, "Surface second-harmonic generation from metal island films and microlithographic structures," Phys. Rev. B 24, 849-856 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Golden, G.

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, "Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays," Nano Lett. 8, 1923-1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodacre, R.

R. M. Jarvis, A. Brooker, and R. Goodacre, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for the rapid discrimination of bacteria," Faraday Discuss. 132, 281-292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopinath, A.

R. Dallapiccola, A. Gopinath, F. Stellacci, and L. Dal Negro, "Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles," Opt. Express 16, 5544-5555 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5544.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, "Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, "Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in determinsitic aperiodic structures," Nano Lett. 8, 2423-2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L Kaplan, L. Dal Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, "Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films," Advanced Mater. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800011.

Grabar, K. G.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

D. R. Ward, N. K. Grady, C. S. Levin, N. J. Halas, Y. P. Wu, P. Nordlander, and D. Natelson, "Electro-migrated nanoscale gaps for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Nano Lett. 7, 1396-1400 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, P.

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, "Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays," Nano Lett. 8, 1923-1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunnarsson, L.

L. Gunnarsson, E.J. Bjerneld, H. Xu, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, "Interparticle coupling effects in nanofabricated substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 802-804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gunnarsson, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, H. Xu, J. Bjerneld, and M. Käll, "Optimizing nanofabricated substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guthrie, A. P.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

D. R. Ward, N. K. Grady, C. S. Levin, N. J. Halas, Y. P. Wu, P. Nordlander, and D. Natelson, "Electro-migrated nanoscale gaps for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Nano Lett. 7, 1396-1400 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," PNAS.  101, 17930-17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oldenburg, S. L. Westcott, R. D. Averitt, and N. J. Halas, "Surface enhanced Raman scattering in the near infrared using metal nanoshell substrates," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4729-4735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, T.

M. Moskovits, L. L. Tay, J. Yang, and T. Haslett, "SERS and the single molecule," Top. Appl. Phys. 82, 215-226 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, "Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode," Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 163-166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, "Surface second-harmonic generation from metal island films and microlithographic structures," Phys. Rev. B 24, 849-856 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W. M.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Vietz, and W. M. Hill, "Periodically structured metallic substrates for SERS," Sens. Actuators B. 51, 285-291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hollars, C. W.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommer, M. B.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T. R.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, M.

N. Mohri, S. Matsushita, M. Inoue, and K. Yoshikawa, "Desorption of 4-Aminobenzenethiol bound to a gold surface," Langmuir. 14, 2343-2347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281-R6284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," PNAS.  101, 17930-17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, M. A.

R. G. Freeman, K. G. Grabar, K. J. Allison, R. M. Bright, J. A. Davis, A. P. Guthrie, M. B. Hommer, M. A. Jackson, P. C. Smith, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, "Self-assembled metal colloid monolayers: an approach to SERS substrates," Science 267, 1629-1632 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, R.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarvis, R. M.

R. M. Jarvis, A. Brooker, and R. Goodacre, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for the rapid discrimination of bacteria," Faraday Discuss. 132, 281-292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeanmaire, D. L.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode," J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R. C.

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, "Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection," Science,  297, 1536-1540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kahl, M.

M. Kahl, E. Voges, S. Kostrewa, C. Vietz, and W. M. Hill, "Periodically structured metallic substrates for SERS," Sens. Actuators B. 51, 285-291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kall, M.

L. Gunnarsson, E.J. Bjerneld, H. Xu, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, "Interparticle coupling effects in nanofabricated substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 802-804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gunnarsson, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, H. Xu, J. Bjerneld, and M. Käll, "Optimizing nanofabricated substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L Kaplan, L. Dal Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, "Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films," Advanced Mater. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800011.

Kartha, V. B.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281-R6284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

L. Gunnarsson, E.J. Bjerneld, H. Xu, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, "Interparticle coupling effects in nanofabricated substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 802-804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gunnarsson, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, H. Xu, J. Bjerneld, and M. Käll, "Optimizing nanofabricated substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nanofabricated periodic (a), Fibonacci (b), Thue-Morse (c) and Rudin-Shapiro (d) arrays of Au nano-cylinders with 100 nm radii and 25 nm minimum edge-to-edge inter-particle separation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated electric field distributions in the plane of (a) periodic (b) Fibonacci, (c) Thue-Morse, and (d) Rudin-Shapiro second-generation arrays of gold nanospheres of 75 nm radii and 25 nm minimum inter-particle separation under the plane wave illumination at λ=785 nm with the E-field polarization parallel to the x-axis (Nper = 100 , NFib = 80, NTM = 128 , NRS = 120). The dispersion properties of Au nanoparticles are described using the Drude model with collision frequency of 250 THz, and plasma frequency of 6790 THz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretically predicted Raman enhancement in arrays of Au nanoparticles of 100 nm radii with (a) varied minimum inter-particle separation (Nper = 100 , NFib = 80, NTM = 128 , NRS =120) and (b) increased array sizes (minimum separation 50 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental Stokes SERS spectra of pMA on (a) Periodic, (b) Fibonacci, (c) Thue-Morse, and (d) Rudin-Shapiro arrays of Au nanocylinders with 100 nm radii and 25 nm (black), 50 nm (red), 100 nm (green) minimum inter-particle separation. (e) Enhancement factors calculated from the experimental data shown in (a)-(d) by using Eq. 2: Periodic (solid, black), Fibonacci (dot, green), Thue-Morse (dash-dot, blue), and Rudin-Shapiro (dash, red).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman enhancement scaling with nanoparticle radii in arrays with minimum separation of 25 nm: (a) Theoretically predicted values for arrays of sizes Nper = 100 , NFib = 80 , NTM = 128 , NRS = 120 ; (b) values derived from experimental data by using Eq. 2. The inset shows the SEM images of the nanofabricated arrays with nano-cylinders of different diameters.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Nanofabricated periodic (a), Fibonacci (b), Thue-Morse (c) and Rudin-Shapiro (d) arrays of Au equilateral nano-triangles with 200 nm side length and 25 nm minimum inter-particle separation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental Stokes SERS spectra of pMA on (a) Periodic, (b) Fibonacci, (c) Thue-Morse, and (d) Rudin-Shapiro arrays of Au nano-triangles with 200 nm side lengths and 25 nm (black), 50 nm (red), 100 nm (green) minimum inter-particle separation. (e) Enhancement factors calculated from the experimental data shown in (a)-(d) by using Eq. 2: Periodic (solid, black), Fibonacci (dot, green), Thue-Morse (dash-dot, blue), and Rudin-Shapiro (dash, red).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G SERS E loc ( ω exc / E inc ( ω exc ) 4 ,
G SERS = RS EN × N REF / RS REF × N EN .
N REF = B v × D pMA × A / M pMA ,

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