Abstract

We simulate a lossless one-dimensional photonic crystals (1D-PC) structure and show that negative refraction could be present near the low frequency edge of at least the second, fourth and sixth bandgaps. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time negative refraction in strongly modulated porous silicon 1D-PC in the visible and near infrared regions. This 1D-PC structure may allow the realization of short-focus Veselago lenses in different optical bands. An advantage of our structure is its simplicity allowing for cheap and rapid fabrication of samples.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3999 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, “3D wire mesh photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480–2483 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, “Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon,” Phys. Lett. A 339, 387–392 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys.Rev. B 72, 165112 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Boedecker and C. Henkel, “All-frequency effective medium theory of a photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 11, 1590 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, “Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).
  26. L. Pavesi,“Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, “Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3081–3086 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, “Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3081–3086 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys.Rev. B 72, 165112 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, “Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon,” Phys. Lett. A 339, 387–392 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Boedecker and C. Henkel, “All-frequency effective medium theory of a photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 11, 1590 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3999 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

L. Pavesi,“Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, “3D wire mesh photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480–2483 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abashin, M.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Agranovich, V. M.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[Crossref]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boedecker, G.

Cheng, B.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Mora, M. B.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, “Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

del Río, J. A.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, “Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Derov, J. S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, L. C.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys.Rev. B 72, 165112 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guven, K.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Henkel, C.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kavokin, A. V.

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, “Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon,” Phys. Lett. A 339, 387–392 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, S. J.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, W. T.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpuech, G.

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, “Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon,” Phys. Lett. A 339, 387–392 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ming, H. Z.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moussa, R.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nava, R.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, “Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ojha, S.P.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parimi, P. V.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pati, S.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi,“Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3999 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shelykh, I.

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, “Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon,” Phys. Lett. A 339, 387–392 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sickmiller, M. E.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, “3D wire mesh photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480–2483 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sievenpiper, D. F.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, “3D wire mesh photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480–2483 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolo, J.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys.Rev. B 72, 165112 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, R.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stacy, A. M.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summers, C. J.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tagüeña-Martínez, J.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, “Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thapa, B. K.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thylín, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tuttle, G.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
[Crossref]

Vodo, P.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wing, R.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, “3D wire mesh photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480–2483 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, “Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3081–3086 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan Yuan, C.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zakhidov, A. A.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. Z.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. Q.

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, “Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3081–3086 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. (1)

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, “Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
[Crossref]

La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento (1)

L. Pavesi,“Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, “Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3081–3086 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, “Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon,” Phys. Lett. A 339, 387–392 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,”Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, ” Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,“Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3999 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, “3D wire mesh photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480–2483 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylín, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys.Rev. B (1)

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys.Rev. B 72, 165112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires,” Science 321, 930 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, “Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 147, 157–160 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. USPEKHI (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, “Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

1D-PC characteristics (a) SEM picture of Psi structure. (b) The reflectivity spectrum. (c) Photonic band structure calculated from the band edge condition (green bands).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

1D-PC negative refraction condition properties (a) Band edge condition. (b) Relative perpendicular group velocity. (c) Relative effective mass. The green bands show the band edges and the yellow bands show approximately the three negative refraction bands inferred from the negative parabolicity of the y-direction bands . The angle of incidence is 25 degrees with TE polarization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic illustration of the negative refraction condition in the band structure. The parameter a represents the multilayer period. The black arrows show the energy of the wavelengths we used experimentally.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Finite element simulations at 419 nm, 633nm and 1350nm with monochromatic TE and TM polarized plane waves at an angle of 25 degrees. The blue graphs on top of each simulation represent power outflow distributions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Finite element simulations at 419 nm, 633nm and 1350nm with monochromatic TE and TM polarized plane waves at an angle of 0 degrees.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A cartoon of the experimental setup (with the nine components) for the negative refraction observation and a picture of the real experimental setup. Both the sample and the camera are placed in translational and rotational stages. A broadband source along with bandpass filters and linear polarizers were used to explore the infrared and visible negative refraction bands. Captured images for the different conditions are shown in 9a–9d.

Equations (1)

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cos ( ω n a a c ) cos ( ω n b c ) 1 2 ( n a n b + n b n a ) sin ( ω n a a c ) sin ( ω n b c ) = ± 1 .

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