Abstract

We demonstrate high performance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy of live cells and tissues with user-variable spectral resolution and broad Raman tunability (2500 - 4100 cm-1), using a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire pump and photonic crystal fiber output for the broadband synchronized Stokes pulse. Spectral chirp of the fs laser pulses was a user-variable parameter for optimization in a spectral focusing implementation of multimodal CARS microscopy. High signal-to-noise, high contrast multimodal imaging of live cells and tissues was achieved with pixel dwell times of 2-8 µs and low laser powers (< 30 mW total).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-X. Cheng and X. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004). URL http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in doi=10.1021/jp035693v.
  3. W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, "Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology," Opt. Express 5, 169-175 (1999). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-5-8-169.
  6. X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?JBO/12/054007/1.
  8. D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J. xin Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, "Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2843-2848 (2002). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/73/2843/1.
  9. F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, "Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292-1294 (2006). URLhttp://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-9-1292.
  10. C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "Selective imaging of saturated andunsaturated lipids by wide-fieldCARS-microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 2699-2708 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2699.
  11. J.-x. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. Xie, "An Epi-Detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (ECARS) Microscope with High Spectral Resolution and High Sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001). URL http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in doi=10.1021/jp003774a.
  12. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, "Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy with chirped optical pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514-517 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Zheltikov and A. N. Naumov, "High-resolution four-photon spectroscopy with chirped pulses," Quantum Electron. 30, 606-610 (2000). URL http://stacks.iop.org/1063-7818/30/606.
  15. T. Hellerer, A. M. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/85/25/1.
  16. I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy using spectral focusing with glass dispersion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 201103 (2008). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/93/201103/1.
  17. R. M. Onorato, N. Muraki, K. P. Knutsen, and R. J. Saykally, "Chirped coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering as a high-spectral- and spatial-resolution microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 2858-2860 (2007). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-19-2858.
  18. H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. M. Hilligsøe, T. Andersen, H. Paulsen, C. Nielsen, K. Mølmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. Hansen, and J. Larsen, "Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 1045-1054 (2004). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-6-1045.
  20. M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Schrader and W. Meier, Raman/Infrared Altas of Organic Compounds (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1978).
  22. A. M.-A. Martin Schwartz and W. H. Koehler, "Fermi resonance in aqueous methanol," J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279-285 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. C. Stary, A. B. Chandler, R. E. Dinsmore, V. Fuster, S. Glagov, J. Insull, William, M. E.  Rosenfeld, C. J. Schwartz, W. D. Wagner, and R. W. Wissler, "A Definition of Advanced Types of Atherosclerotic Lesions and a Histological Classification of Atherosclerosis : A Report From the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15, 1512-1531 (1995). URL http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/9/1512.
  24. S. Murugkar, C. Brideau, A. Ridsdale, M. Naji, P. K. Stys, and H. Anis, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using photonic crystal fiber with two closely lying zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 14,028-14,037 (2007). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-14028

2006 (1)

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, "Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy with chirped optical pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514-517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. M.-A. Martin Schwartz and W. H. Koehler, "Fermi resonance in aqueous methanol," J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279-285 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duppen, K.

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, "Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy with chirped optical pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514-517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, S.

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, W. H.

A. M.-A. Martin Schwartz and W. H. Koehler, "Fermi resonance in aqueous methanol," J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279-285 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lotem, H.

H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, R. T.

H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin Schwartz, A. M.-A.

A. M.-A. Martin Schwartz and W. H. Koehler, "Fermi resonance in aqueous methanol," J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279-285 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, "Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy with chirped optical pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514-517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pezacki, J. P.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiomi, M.

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stolow, A.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tonary, A. M.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-d.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, "Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy with chirped optical pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514-517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (1)

M. Shiomi, T. Ito, S. Yamada, S. Kawashima, and J. Fan, "Development of an Animal Model for Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (WHHLMI Rabbit)," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1239-1244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Live Cells by Second Harmonic Generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

ChemBioChem (1)

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, and J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

A. M.-A. Martin Schwartz and W. H. Koehler, "Fermi resonance in aqueous methanol," J. Mol. Struct. 63, 279-285 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, "Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy with chirped optical pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514-517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

H. C. Stary, A. B. Chandler, R. E. Dinsmore, V. Fuster, S. Glagov, J. Insull, William, M. E.  Rosenfeld, C. J. Schwartz, W. D. Wagner, and R. W. Wissler, "A Definition of Advanced Types of Atherosclerotic Lesions and a Histological Classification of Atherosclerosis : A Report From the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15, 1512-1531 (1995). URL http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/9/1512.

S. Murugkar, C. Brideau, A. Ridsdale, M. Naji, P. K. Stys, and H. Anis, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using photonic crystal fiber with two closely lying zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 14,028-14,037 (2007). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-14028

J.-X. Cheng and X. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004). URL http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in doi=10.1021/jp035693v.

D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, "Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology," Opt. Express 5, 169-175 (1999). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-5-8-169.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?JBO/12/054007/1.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J. xin Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, "Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2843-2848 (2002). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/73/2843/1.

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, "Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292-1294 (2006). URLhttp://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-9-1292.

C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "Selective imaging of saturated andunsaturated lipids by wide-fieldCARS-microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 2699-2708 (2008). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2699.

J.-x. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. Xie, "An Epi-Detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (ECARS) Microscope with High Spectral Resolution and High Sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001). URL http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in doi=10.1021/jp003774a.

A. M. Zheltikov and A. N. Naumov, "High-resolution four-photon spectroscopy with chirped pulses," Quantum Electron. 30, 606-610 (2000). URL http://stacks.iop.org/1063-7818/30/606.

T. Hellerer, A. M. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/85/25/1.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy using spectral focusing with glass dispersion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 201103 (2008). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/93/201103/1.

R. M. Onorato, N. Muraki, K. P. Knutsen, and R. J. Saykally, "Chirped coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering as a high-spectral- and spatial-resolution microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 2858-2860 (2007). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-19-2858.

K. M. Hilligsøe, T. Andersen, H. Paulsen, C. Nielsen, K. Mølmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. Hansen, and J. Larsen, "Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 1045-1054 (2004). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-6-1045.

B. Schrader and W. Meier, Raman/Infrared Altas of Organic Compounds (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1978).

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