Abstract

Blood content and tumor oxygen level are important biomarkers and prognostic indicators in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, noninvasive measurements of both quantities in human colon are limited. In this study, we extracted the total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2) of normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues in 27 patients using a diffuse reflectance instrument and algorithms based on the diffusion equation. The mean±standard error of THC and StO2 from all normal sites (n=26) is 93.4±17.1μM and 67.2±3.7%, respectively. THC increased to 136.9±23.8μM and 153.8±38.6μM and StO2 decreased to 51.3±7.0% and 26.4±6.1% for premalignant and malignant tissues, respectively. The disease-to-normal THC ratios are 3.2±1.1 and 4.4±1.9 and the disease-to-normal StO2 ratios are 0.7±0.1 and 0.5±0.1 for premalignant and malignant tissues, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a robust optical method to assess colon THC and StO2 at all stages of carcinogenesis in vivo so that the angiogenesis and hypoxia of the disease and the therapeutic role can be studied in CRC patients.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  26. W. Wiesner, K. J. Mortele, H. Ji, and P. R. Ros, "Normal colonic wall thickness at CT and its relation to colonic distension," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 26, 102-106 (2002).
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2008

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai and X. Chen, "Multimodality molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis," J. Nucl. Med. 49. Suppl 2, 113S-128S (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, S. Coogan, D. Y. Sze, and R. Soetikno, "Diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia by visible light spectroscopy during endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 294-300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mizukami, Y. Kohgo, and D. C. Chung, "Hypoxia inducible factor-1 independent pathways in tumor angiogenesis," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Tropres, L. Lamalle, M. Peoc'h, R. Farion, Y. Usson, M. Decorps, and C. Remy, "In vivo assessment of tumoral angiogenesis," Magn. Reson. Med. 51, 533-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Bergers and L. E. Benjamin, "Tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch," Nat. Rev. Cancer 3, 401-410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

W. Wiesner, K. J. Mortele, H. Ji, and P. R. Ros, "Normal colonic wall thickness at CT and its relation to colonic distension," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 26, 102-106 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Koch, "Measurement of absolute oxygen levels in cells and tissues using oxygen sensors and 2-nitroimidazole EF5," Methods Enzymol 352, 3-31 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Steady-state reflectance spectroscopy in the P3 approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 584-599 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell 100, 57-70 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, "Quantitative broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue-simulating phantoms containing erythrocytes," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3381-3404 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

P. Vaupel, F. Kallinowski, and P. Okunieff, "Blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply, and metabolic microenvironment of human tumors: a review," Cancer Res. 49, 6449-6465 (1989).
[PubMed]

1985

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

1983

J. K. Fisher, "Abnormal colonic wall thickening on computed tomography," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 7, 90-97 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

J. K. Fisher, "Normal colon wall thickness on CT," Radiology 145, 415-418 (1982).
[PubMed]

Backman, V.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, E. L.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baron, A.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaumont, M.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benaron, D.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, S. Coogan, D. Y. Sze, and R. Soetikno, "Diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia by visible light spectroscopy during endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 294-300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benjamin, L. E.

G. Bergers and L. E. Benjamin, "Tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch," Nat. Rev. Cancer 3, 401-410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergers, G.

G. Bergers and L. E. Benjamin, "Tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch," Nat. Rev. Cancer 3, 401-410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berlin, J.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertolini, V.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bertoni, F.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broder, G. J.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Brookland, R.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Brown, D. Q.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Busch, T. M.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai and X. Chen, "Multimodality molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis," J. Nucl. Med. 49. Suppl 2, 113S-128S (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capella, C.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carnevali, I.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, T.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellano, P.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catalano, G.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerutti, R.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. M.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

W. Cai and X. Chen, "Multimodality molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis," J. Nucl. Med. 49. Suppl 2, 113S-128S (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiaravalli, A. M.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choe, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, D. C.

Y. Mizukami, Y. Kohgo, and D. C. Chung, "Hypoxia inducible factor-1 independent pathways in tumor angiogenesis," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciardiello, F.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coia, L. R.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Collins, R. A.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coogan, S.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, S. Coogan, D. Y. Sze, and R. Soetikno, "Diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia by visible light spectroscopy during endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 294-300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, S. E.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vita, F.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

Dimofte, A.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunphy, I.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emanuele, M. J.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engstrom, P.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Evans, S. M.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farion, R.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
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Fehrenbacher, L.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Ferrara, N.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
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Fisher, J. K.

J. K. Fisher, "Abnormal colonic wall thickening on computed tomography," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 7, 90-97 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Fisher, "Normal colon wall thickness on CT," Radiology 145, 415-418 (1982).
[PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
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E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Steady-state reflectance spectroscopy in the P3 approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 584-599 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, "Quantitative broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue-simulating phantoms containing erythrocytes," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3381-3404 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedland, S.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, S. Coogan, D. Y. Sze, and R. Soetikno, "Diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia by visible light spectroscopy during endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 294-300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furlan, D.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fyfe, G.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galizia, G.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatenby, R. A.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Glatstein, E.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleason, K.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. A.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grady, M. S.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

Griffing, S.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
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Groshen, S.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
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T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
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Hainsworth, J.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
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G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
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H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
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Hendifar, A. E.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
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Hockel, M.

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
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Holmgren, E.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
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E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, "Quantitative broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue-simulating phantoms containing erythrocytes," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3381-3404 (1998).
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G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
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Hurwitz, H.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
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Husain, H.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
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Hutchison, G. J.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
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S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
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Infusino, S.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
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Jameel, M.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
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S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
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T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
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Jenkins, W. T.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
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S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
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Kabbinavar, F.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
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R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
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Kilger, A.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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Koch, C. J.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
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S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
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C. J. Koch, "Measurement of absolute oxygen levels in cells and tissues using oxygen sensors and 2-nitroimidazole EF5," Methods Enzymol 352, 3-31 (2002).
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Y. Mizukami, Y. Kohgo, and D. C. Chung, "Hypoxia inducible factor-1 independent pathways in tumor angiogenesis," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 5670-5674 (2007).
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Kromine, A.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
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Kwee, I.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
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I. Tropres, L. Lamalle, M. Peoc'h, R. Farion, Y. Usson, M. Decorps, and C. Remy, "In vivo assessment of tumoral angiogenesis," Magn. Reson. Med. 51, 533-541 (2004).
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Lech, G.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemasson, B.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
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Lenz, H. J.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leo, C.

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieto, E.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loevner, L.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loncaster, J. A.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lurje, G.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lustig, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lustig, R. A.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magarelli, D. P.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Martinelli, E.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, A.

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizukami, Y.

Y. Mizukami, Y. Kohgo, and D. C. Chung, "Hypoxia inducible factor-1 independent pathways in tumor angiogenesis," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moldofsky, P. J.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Morgillo, F.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortele, K. J.

W. Wiesner, K. J. Mortele, H. Ji, and P. R. Ros, "Normal colonic wall thickness at CT and its relation to colonic distension," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 26, 102-106 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagashima, F.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, P. T.

S. M. Evans, K. D. Judy, I. Dunphy, W. T. Jenkins, W. T. Hwang, P. T. Nelson, R. A. Lustig, K. Jenkins, D. P. Magarelli, S. M. Hahn, R. A. Collins, M. S. Grady, and C. J. Koch, "Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8177-8184 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, M. G.

E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, "Quantitative broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of tissue-simulating phantoms containing erythrocytes," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3381-3404 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, W.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okunieff, P.

P. Vaupel, F. Kallinowski, and P. Okunieff, "Blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply, and metabolic microenvironment of human tumors: a review," Cancer Res. 49, 6449-6465 (1989).
[PubMed]

Orditura, M.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parachikov, I.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Pignatelli, C.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilch, H.

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, P. M.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putt, M.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quon, H.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remy, C.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, M. P.

R. A. Gatenby, L. R. Coia, M. P. Richter, H. Katz, P. J. Moldofsky, P. Engstrom, D. Q. Brown, R. Brookland, and G. J. Broder, "Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes," Radiology 156, 211-214 (1985).
[PubMed]

Roberts, S. A.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, B.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romano, C.

F. De Vita, M. Orditura, E. Lieto, S. Infusino, F. Morgillo, E. Martinelli, P. Castellano, C. Romano, F. Ciardiello, G. Catalano, C. Pignatelli, and G. Galizia, "Elevated perioperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with colon carcinoma," Cancer 100, 270-278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ros, P. R.

W. Wiesner, K. J. Mortele, H. Ji, and P. R. Ros, "Normal colonic wall thickness at CT and its relation to colonic distension," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 26, 102-106 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, R.

H. Hurwitz, L. Fehrenbacher, W. Novotny, T. Cartwright, J. Hainsworth, W. Heim, J. Berlin, A. Baron, S. Griffing, E. Holmgren, N. Ferrara, G. Fyfe, B. Rogers, R. Ross, and F. Kabbinavar, "Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 350, 2335-2342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahnane, N.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schultheis, A. M.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segebarth, C.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D. B.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, S. Coogan, D. Y. Sze, and R. Soetikno, "Diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia by visible light spectroscopy during endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 294-300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solonenko, M.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratford, I. J.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunar, U.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sze, D. Y.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, S. Coogan, D. Y. Sze, and R. Soetikno, "Diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia by visible light spectroscopy during endoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 294-300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tropres, I.

I. Tropres, L. Lamalle, M. Peoc'h, R. Farion, Y. Usson, M. Decorps, and C. Remy, "In vivo assessment of tumoral angiogenesis," Magn. Reson. Med. 51, 533-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uccella, S.

D. Furlan, N. Sahnane, I. Carnevali, R. Cerutti, F. Bertoni, I. Kwee, S. Uccella, V. Bertolini, A. M. Chiaravalli, and C. Capella, "Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas," Hum. Pathol. 39, 1438-1494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vakil, P.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valable, S.

S. Valable, B. Lemasson, R. Farion, M. Beaumont, C. Segebarth, C. Remy, and E. L. Barbier, "Assessment of blood volume, vessel size, and the expression of angiogenic factors in two rat glioma models: a longitudinal in vivo and ex vivo study," NMR Biomed. 21, 1043-1056 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, H. R.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Vaupel, P.

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vaupel, F. Kallinowski, and P. Okunieff, "Blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply, and metabolic microenvironment of human tumors: a review," Cancer Res. 49, 6449-6465 (1989).
[PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Weinberg, R. A.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell 100, 57-70 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, C. M.

G. J. Hutchison, H. R. Valentine, J. A. Loncaster, S. E. Davidson, R. D. Hunter, S. A. Roberts, A. L. Harris, I. J. Stratford, P. M. Price, and C. M. West, "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia: correlation with tumor oxygen, pimonidazole measurements, and outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 8405-8412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, W.

W. Wiesner, K. J. Mortele, H. Ji, and P. R. Ros, "Normal colonic wall thickness at CT and its relation to colonic distension," J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 26, 102-106 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wileyto, E. P.

T. M. Busch, S. M. Hahn, E. P. Wileyto, C. J. Koch, D. L. Fraker, P. Zhang, M. Putt, K. Gleason, D. B. Shin, M. J. Emanuele, K. Jenkins, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Evans, "Hypoxia and Photofrin uptake in the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of photodynamic therapy patients," Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4630-4638 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wree, A.

A. Mayer, A. Wree, M. Hockel, C. Leo, H. Pilch, and P. Vaupel, "Lack of correlation between expression of HIF-1alpha protein and oxygenation status in identical tissue areas of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix," Cancer Res. 64, 5876-5881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

G. Lurje, W. Zhang, A. M. Schultheis, D. Yang, S. Groshen, A. E. Hendifar, H. Husain, M. A. Gordon, F. Nagashima, H. M. Chang, and H. J. Lenz, "Polymorphisms in VEGF and IL-8 predict tumor recurrence in stage III colon cancer," Ann. Oncol. 19, 1734-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med. Phys. 35, 2443-2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 14004 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, K. L.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler3rd, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
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Gastroenterology

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, "Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk," Gastroenterology 135, 1069-1078 (2008).
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Hum. Pathol

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Noninvasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Wang, J. C. Finlay, K. Lee, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, E. Glatstein, C. J. Koch, S. M. Evans, S. M. Hahn, T. M. Busch, and A. G. Yodh, "Quantitative comparison of tissue oxygen and motexafin lutetium uptake by ex vivo and noninvasive in vivo techniques in patients with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034023 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The photograph and the schematic diagram of the endoscopic fiber optic probe (a), and the photographs showing the geometry of the probe with respect to the colon tissues. The fiber tip is positioned for measurements by illuminating the light source toward the colon wall (b). The probe is in good contact with the colon tissue during optical measurements that no light source is seen (c). The source-detector separations shown in (a) are in mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured oxygen saturation (StO2) and total hemoglobin concentration (THC) in hemoglobin phantoms using P1 (oe-17-4-2805-i001) and P3 (oe-17-4-2805-i002) approximations. (a) StO2(%)) from two subjects was plotted versus electrode probe measured oxygen partial pressure (pO2). A human blood dissociation curve (dashed line) was plotted for comparison. (b) THC was measured at different concentrations. Each data point plot the mean value and standard deviation from 10 measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

THC (Figs. 3(a) and (b)) and StO2 (Figs. 3(c) and (d)) measurements on disease (oe-17-4-2805-i003) and adjacent normal (oe-17-4-2805-i004) sites from polyp patients (P) and cancer patients (C). The error bar is the standard deviation calculated from one to five measurements per patient.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The relative total hemoglobin concentration (rTHC) (Figs. 4(a) and (b)) and the relative oxygen saturation (rStO2) (Figs. 4(c) and (d)) of disease-to-normal sites on 16 polyp patients (P) and 8 cancer patients (C). rTHC and rStO2 are plotted in log scale.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The relation of THC (a) and StO2 (b) versus polyp size in 15 polyp measurements from 13 polyp patients.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The mean and standard error of the mean (SEM) of the total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2) of normal and disease sites from patients diagnosed carrying normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The mean and standard error of the mean (SEM) of relative total hemoglobin concentration (rTHC) and relative oxygen saturation (rStO2) of disease to normal sites from patients with premalignant and malignant colonic tissues.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R semi , p 1 = R ( z = z 0 ) R ( z = ( 2 z b + z 0 ) )
R = A [ c 1 Φ ( z ) + c 2 j z ( z ) ]
Φ ( z ) = 1 4 π D exp ( μ eff r ) r
j z ( z ) = 1 4 π z ( μ eff + 1 r ) exp ( μ eff r ) r 2
A = μ s ( μ a + μ s ) 1
R semi , p 3 = R ( z = 2 z 0 ) R ( z = ( 2 z b + z 0 ) )
+ R ( z = 0 ) R ( z = 2 z b )

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