Abstract

The involvement of astrocytes in brain functions rather than support has been identified and widely concerned. However the lack of an effective stimulation of astrocytes hampers our understanding of their essential roles. Here, we employed 800-nm near infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser to induce Ca2+ wave in astrocytes. It was demonstrated that photostimulation of astrocytes with femtosecond laser pulses is efficient with the advantages of non-contact, non-disruptiveness, reproducibility, and high spatiotemporal precision. Photostimulation of astrocytes would facilitate investigations on information processing in neuronal circuits by providing effective way to excite astrocytes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Volterra and J. Meldolesi, "Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 626-640 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Nedergaard, B. Ransom, and S. A. Goldman, "New roles for astrocytes: redefining the functional architecture of the brain," Trends Neurosci. 26, 523-530 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Nedergaard, "Direct signaling from astrocytes to neurons in cultures of mammalian brain cells," Science 263, 1768-1771 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. G. Haydon and G. Carmignoto, "Astrocyte control of synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling," Physiol. Rev. 86, 1009-1031 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Carmignoto, "Reciprocal communication systems between astrocytes and neurones," Prog. Neurobiol. 62, 561-581 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Simard, G. Arcuino, T. Takano, Q. S. Liu, and M. Nedergaard, "Signaling at the gliovascular interface," J. Neurosci. 23, 9254-9262 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. Schummers, H. Yu, and M. Sur, "Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex," Science 320, 1638-1643 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. C. Charles, J. E. Merrill, E. R. Dirksen, and M. J. Sanderson, "Intercellular signaling in glial cells: calcium waves and oscillations in response to mechanical stimulation and glutamate," Neuron 6, 983-992 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. A. Fiacco and K. D. McCarthy, "Intracellular astrocyte calcium waves in situ increase the frequency of spontaneous AMPA receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 24, 722-732 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Wantanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, "In vivo manipulation of fluorescently labeled organelles in living cells by multiphoton excitation," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 031213 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Wantanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, "Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion," Opt. Express 15, 2490-2498 (2007).
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  13. K. König, I. Riemann, and W. Fritzsche, "Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 819-821 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Wantanabe, N. Arakawa, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, "Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell," Opt. Express 12, 4203-4213 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulses as a versatile non-invasive tool for intra-tissue nanoprocessing in plants without compromising viability," The Plant Journal 31, 365-374 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, "Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Sacconi, R. P. O'Connor, A. Jasaitis, A. Masi, M. Buffelli, and F. S. Pavone, "In vivo multiphoton nanosurgery on cortical neurons," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 050502 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. I. Smith, Y. Kumamoto, S. Iwanaga, J. Ando, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, "A femtosecond laser pacemaker for heart muscle cells," Opt. Express 16, 8604-8616 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Zhou, X. Liu, X. Lv, J. Li, Q. Luo, and S. Zeng, "Monitor and control of neuronal activities with femtosecond pulse laser," Chinese Sci. Bull. 53, 687-694 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. I. Smith, S. Iwanaga, T. Beppu, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Photostimulation of two types of Ca2+ waves in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by ultrashort pulsed near-infrared laser irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 154-161 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, "Targeted insult to subsurface cortical blood vessels using ultrashort laser pulses: three models of stroke," Nat. Methods 3 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, "Location-dependent photogeneration of calcium waves in HeLa cells," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167-176 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. X. Lv, C. Zhan, S. Zeng, W. R. Chen, and Q. Luo, "Construction of multiphoton laser scanning microscope based on dual-axis acousto-optic deflector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 046101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Bernardinelli, P. J. Magistretti, and J. Y. Chatton, "Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 14937-14942 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. B. Innocenti, V. Parpura, and P. G. Haydon, "Imaging extracellular waves of glutamate during calcium signaling in cultured astrocytes," J. Neurosci. 20, 1800-1808 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  29. A. Charles, "Intercellular calcium waves in glia," Glia 24, 39-49 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. A. Newman, "Propagation of intercellular calcium waves in retinal astrocytes and müller cells," J. Neurosci. 21, 2215-2223 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  31. L. Leybaert, K. Paemeleire, A. Strahonja, and M. J. Sanderson, "Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells," Glia 24, 398-407 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. F. DelPrincipe, M. Egger, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and E. Niggli, "Two-photon and UV-laser flash photolysis of the Ca2+ cage," Cell Calcium 25, 85-91 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, "DM-nitrophen AM is caged magnesium," Cell Calcium 39, 471-473 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. G. C. Faas, K. Karacs, J. L. Vergara, and I. Mody, "Kinetic properties of DM-nitrophen binding to calcium and magnesium," Biophys. J 88, 4421-4433 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. H. Hirase, V. Nikolenko, J. H. Goldberg, and R. Yuste, "Multiphoton stimulation of neurons," J Neurobiol. 51, 237-247 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. W. Deitmer, A. Verkhratsky, and C. Lohr, "Calcium signalling in glial cells," Cell Calcium 24, 405-416 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Verkhratsky, R. K. Orkand, and H. Kettenmann, "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function," Physol. Rev. 78, 99-141 (1998).
  39. A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271-280 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. Schummers, H. Yu, and M. Sur, "Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex," Science 320, 1638-1643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wantanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, "In vivo manipulation of fluorescently labeled organelles in living cells by multiphoton excitation," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 031213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Smith, Y. Kumamoto, S. Iwanaga, J. Ando, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, "A femtosecond laser pacemaker for heart muscle cells," Opt. Express 16, 8604-8616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, X. Liu, X. Lv, J. Li, Q. Luo, and S. Zeng, "Monitor and control of neuronal activities with femtosecond pulse laser," Chinese Sci. Bull. 53, 687-694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

W. Wantanabe, T. Shimada, S. Matsunaga, D. Kurihara, K. Fukui, S. Arimura, N. Tsutsumi, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, "Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion," Opt. Express 15, 2490-2498 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sacconi, R. P. O'Connor, A. Jasaitis, A. Masi, M. Buffelli, and F. S. Pavone, "In vivo multiphoton nanosurgery on cortical neurons," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 050502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, "DM-nitrophen AM is caged magnesium," Cell Calcium 39, 471-473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lv, C. Zhan, S. Zeng, W. R. Chen, and Q. Luo, "Construction of multiphoton laser scanning microscope based on dual-axis acousto-optic deflector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 046101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Smith, S. Iwanaga, T. Beppu, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Photostimulation of two types of Ca2+ waves in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by ultrashort pulsed near-infrared laser irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, "Targeted insult to subsurface cortical blood vessels using ultrashort laser pulses: three models of stroke," Nat. Methods 3 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, "Location-dependent photogeneration of calcium waves in HeLa cells," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167-176 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Haydon and G. Carmignoto, "Astrocyte control of synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling," Physiol. Rev. 86, 1009-1031 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Volterra and J. Meldolesi, "Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 626-640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Faas, K. Karacs, J. L. Vergara, and I. Mody, "Kinetic properties of DM-nitrophen binding to calcium and magnesium," Biophys. J 88, 4421-4433 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y. Bernardinelli, P. J. Magistretti, and J. Y. Chatton, "Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 14937-14942 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Fiacco and K. D. McCarthy, "Intracellular astrocyte calcium waves in situ increase the frequency of spontaneous AMPA receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 24, 722-732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wantanabe, N. Arakawa, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, "Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell," Opt. Express 12, 4203-4213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Nedergaard, B. Ransom, and S. A. Goldman, "New roles for astrocytes: redefining the functional architecture of the brain," Trends Neurosci. 26, 523-530 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Simard, G. Arcuino, T. Takano, Q. S. Liu, and M. Nedergaard, "Signaling at the gliovascular interface," J. Neurosci. 23, 9254-9262 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. Hirase, V. Nikolenko, J. H. Goldberg, and R. Yuste, "Multiphoton stimulation of neurons," J Neurobiol. 51, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulses as a versatile non-invasive tool for intra-tissue nanoprocessing in plants without compromising viability," The Plant Journal 31, 365-374 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, "Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. König, I. Riemann, and W. Fritzsche, "Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 819-821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Newman, "Propagation of intercellular calcium waves in retinal astrocytes and müller cells," J. Neurosci. 21, 2215-2223 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

B. Innocenti, V. Parpura, and P. G. Haydon, "Imaging extracellular waves of glutamate during calcium signaling in cultured astrocytes," J. Neurosci. 20, 1800-1808 (2000).
[PubMed]

G. Carmignoto, "Reciprocal communication systems between astrocytes and neurones," Prog. Neurobiol. 62, 561-581 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271-280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. DelPrincipe, M. Egger, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and E. Niggli, "Two-photon and UV-laser flash photolysis of the Ca2+ cage," Cell Calcium 25, 85-91 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

J. W. Deitmer, A. Verkhratsky, and C. Lohr, "Calcium signalling in glial cells," Cell Calcium 24, 405-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Verkhratsky, R. K. Orkand, and H. Kettenmann, "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function," Physol. Rev. 78, 99-141 (1998).

A. Charles, "Intercellular calcium waves in glia," Glia 24, 39-49 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Leybaert, K. Paemeleire, A. Strahonja, and M. J. Sanderson, "Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells," Glia 24, 398-407 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. T. Porter and K. D. McCarthy, "Adenosine receptors modulate [Ca2+]i in hippocampal astrocytes in situ," J. Neurochem. 65, 1515-1523 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Nedergaard, "Direct signaling from astrocytes to neurons in cultures of mammalian brain cells," Science 263, 1768-1771 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. C. Charles, J. E. Merrill, E. R. Dirksen, and M. J. Sanderson, "Intercellular signaling in glial cells: calcium waves and oscillations in response to mechanical stimulation and glutamate," Neuron 6, 983-992 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. R.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ando, J.

Arakawa, N.

Arcuino, G.

M. Simard, G. Arcuino, T. Takano, Q. S. Liu, and M. Nedergaard, "Signaling at the gliovascular interface," J. Neurosci. 23, 9254-9262 (2003).
[PubMed]

Arimura, S.

Ben-Yakar, A.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beppu, T.

N. I. Smith, S. Iwanaga, T. Beppu, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Photostimulation of two types of Ca2+ waves in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by ultrashort pulsed near-infrared laser irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernardinelli, Y.

Y. Bernardinelli, P. J. Magistretti, and J. Y. Chatton, "Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 14937-14942 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271-280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. B.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buffelli, M.

L. Sacconi, R. P. O'Connor, A. Jasaitis, A. Masi, M. Buffelli, and F. S. Pavone, "In vivo multiphoton nanosurgery on cortical neurons," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 050502 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271-280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carmignoto, G.

P. G. Haydon and G. Carmignoto, "Astrocyte control of synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling," Physiol. Rev. 86, 1009-1031 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Carmignoto, "Reciprocal communication systems between astrocytes and neurones," Prog. Neurobiol. 62, 561-581 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charles, A.

A. Charles, "Intercellular calcium waves in glia," Glia 24, 39-49 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charles, A. C.

A. C. Charles, J. E. Merrill, E. R. Dirksen, and M. J. Sanderson, "Intercellular signaling in glial cells: calcium waves and oscillations in response to mechanical stimulation and glutamate," Neuron 6, 983-992 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatton, J. Y.

Y. Bernardinelli, P. J. Magistretti, and J. Y. Chatton, "Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 14937-14942 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. R.

X. Lv, C. Zhan, S. Zeng, W. R. Chen, and Q. Luo, "Construction of multiphoton laser scanning microscope based on dual-axis acousto-optic deflector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 046101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, A. D.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cinar, H.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cinar, H. N.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deitmer, J. W.

J. W. Deitmer, A. Verkhratsky, and C. Lohr, "Calcium signalling in glial cells," Cell Calcium 24, 405-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DelPrincipe, F.

F. DelPrincipe, M. Egger, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and E. Niggli, "Two-photon and UV-laser flash photolysis of the Ca2+ cage," Cell Calcium 25, 85-91 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirksen, E. R.

A. C. Charles, J. E. Merrill, E. R. Dirksen, and M. J. Sanderson, "Intercellular signaling in glial cells: calcium waves and oscillations in response to mechanical stimulation and glutamate," Neuron 6, 983-992 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, S.

Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egger, M.

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G. C. Faas, K. Karacs, J. L. Vergara, and I. Mody, "Kinetic properties of DM-nitrophen binding to calcium and magnesium," Biophys. J 88, 4421-4433 (2005).
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N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, "Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
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N. I. Smith, Y. Kumamoto, S. Iwanaga, J. Ando, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, "A femtosecond laser pacemaker for heart muscle cells," Opt. Express 16, 8604-8616 (2008).
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L. Leybaert, K. Paemeleire, A. Strahonja, and M. J. Sanderson, "Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells," Glia 24, 398-407 (1998).
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A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
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S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, "Location-dependent photogeneration of calcium waves in HeLa cells," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167-176 (2006).
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N. I. Smith, Y. Kumamoto, S. Iwanaga, J. Ando, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, "A femtosecond laser pacemaker for heart muscle cells," Opt. Express 16, 8604-8616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Smith, S. Iwanaga, T. Beppu, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Photostimulation of two types of Ca2+ waves in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by ultrashort pulsed near-infrared laser irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
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L. Leybaert, K. Paemeleire, A. Strahonja, and M. J. Sanderson, "Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells," Glia 24, 398-407 (1998).
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N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, "Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

Tirlapur, U. K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulses as a versatile non-invasive tool for intra-tissue nanoprocessing in plants without compromising viability," The Plant Journal 31, 365-374 (2002).
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U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
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Tsai, P. S.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, "Targeted insult to subsurface cortical blood vessels using ultrashort laser pulses: three models of stroke," Nat. Methods 3 (2006).
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E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
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Vergara, J. L.

G. C. Faas, K. Karacs, J. L. Vergara, and I. Mody, "Kinetic properties of DM-nitrophen binding to calcium and magnesium," Biophys. J 88, 4421-4433 (2005).
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J. W. Deitmer, A. Verkhratsky, and C. Lohr, "Calcium signalling in glial cells," Cell Calcium 24, 405-416 (1998).
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A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271-280 (1999).
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A. Volterra and J. Meldolesi, "Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 626-640 (2005).
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Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wantanabe, W.

Webb, W. W.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
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Yu, H.

J. Schummers, H. Yu, and M. Sur, "Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex," Science 320, 1638-1643 (2008).
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H. Hirase, V. Nikolenko, J. H. Goldberg, and R. Yuste, "Multiphoton stimulation of neurons," J Neurobiol. 51, 237-247 (2002).
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Zeng, S.

W. Zhou, X. Liu, X. Lv, J. Li, Q. Luo, and S. Zeng, "Monitor and control of neuronal activities with femtosecond pulse laser," Chinese Sci. Bull. 53, 687-694 (2008).
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X. Lv, C. Zhan, S. Zeng, W. R. Chen, and Q. Luo, "Construction of multiphoton laser scanning microscope based on dual-axis acousto-optic deflector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 046101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, C.

X. Lv, C. Zhan, S. Zeng, W. R. Chen, and Q. Luo, "Construction of multiphoton laser scanning microscope based on dual-axis acousto-optic deflector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 046101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, X. Liu, X. Lv, J. Li, Q. Luo, and S. Zeng, "Monitor and control of neuronal activities with femtosecond pulse laser," Chinese Sci. Bull. 53, 687-694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271-280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Katoh, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, and T. Takamatsu, "Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208-1210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J (2)

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys. J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Faas, K. Karacs, J. L. Vergara, and I. Mody, "Kinetic properties of DM-nitrophen binding to calcium and magnesium," Biophys. J 88, 4421-4433 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Biochem. Biophys. (1)

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, "Location-dependent photogeneration of calcium waves in HeLa cells," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167-176 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Deitmer, A. Verkhratsky, and C. Lohr, "Calcium signalling in glial cells," Cell Calcium 24, 405-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chinese Sci. Bull. (1)

W. Zhou, X. Liu, X. Lv, J. Li, Q. Luo, and S. Zeng, "Monitor and control of neuronal activities with femtosecond pulse laser," Chinese Sci. Bull. 53, 687-694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glia (2)

L. Leybaert, K. Paemeleire, A. Strahonja, and M. J. Sanderson, "Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells," Glia 24, 398-407 (1998).
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A. Charles, "Intercellular calcium waves in glia," Glia 24, 39-49 (1998).
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H. Hirase, V. Nikolenko, J. H. Goldberg, and R. Yuste, "Multiphoton stimulation of neurons," J Neurobiol. 51, 237-247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. Wantanabe, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, "In vivo manipulation of fluorescently labeled organelles in living cells by multiphoton excitation," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 031213 (2008).
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L. Sacconi, R. P. O'Connor, A. Jasaitis, A. Masi, M. Buffelli, and F. S. Pavone, "In vivo multiphoton nanosurgery on cortical neurons," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 050502 (2007).
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T. A. Fiacco and K. D. McCarthy, "Intracellular astrocyte calcium waves in situ increase the frequency of spontaneous AMPA receptor currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 24, 722-732 (2004).
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M. Simard, G. Arcuino, T. Takano, Q. S. Liu, and M. Nedergaard, "Signaling at the gliovascular interface," J. Neurosci. 23, 9254-9262 (2003).
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E. A. Newman, "Propagation of intercellular calcium waves in retinal astrocytes and müller cells," J. Neurosci. 21, 2215-2223 (2001).
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N. I. Smith, S. Iwanaga, T. Beppu, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Photostimulation of two types of Ca2+ waves in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by ultrashort pulsed near-infrared laser irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 154-161 (2006).
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Nat. Cell Biol. (1)

Z. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Zhou, A. Song, T. Xu, Q. Luo, W. Wang, X.-s. Gu, and S. Duan, "Regulated ATP release from astrocytes through lysosome exocytosis," Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 945-953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, "Targeted insult to subsurface cortical blood vessels using ultrashort laser pulses: three models of stroke," Nat. Methods 3 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

A. Volterra and J. Meldolesi, "Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 626-640 (2005).
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Nature (2)

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser," Nature 418, 290-291 (2002).
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M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, "Functional regeneration after laser axotomy," Nature 432, 822-822 (2004).
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A. Verkhratsky, R. K. Orkand, and H. Kettenmann, "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function," Physol. Rev. 78, 99-141 (1998).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

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The Plant Journal (1)

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, "Femtosecond near-infrared laser pulses as a versatile non-invasive tool for intra-tissue nanoprocessing in plants without compromising viability," The Plant Journal 31, 365-374 (2002).
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M. Nedergaard, B. Ransom, and S. A. Goldman, "New roles for astrocytes: redefining the functional architecture of the brain," Trends Neurosci. 26, 523-530 (2003).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (1219 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (456 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (210 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photogeneration of Ca2+ wave in astrocytes. (a) DIC image of cultured astrocytes and corresponding fluorescence images before and after laser irradiation. Red arrowhead (and in b) points to femtosecond laser target on an astrocyte “As”, which is indicated by white dashed curve. (b) Image series of fluorescence change ΔF, representing only Ca2+ increases. The edges of the wave at corresponding time points are marked by red dashed curves. Scale bar, 100 μm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoporation on astrocytes caused by femtosecond laser pulses. (a) Transformation of cell membrane. The right two images are enlargements of boxed area. Arrowhead points to the femtosecond laser target. (b) PI-test. (Left) ΔF Images show fluorescence changes of Fluo-3 and PI after photostimulation. The stimulated cell is marked by dashed curves. (Right) Comparison of ΔF/F between Fluo-3 and PI. (c) EGTA-test. Time courses of fluorescence change (ΔF/F) in the same stimulated astrocyte under different conditions are shown. Arrows indicate the onset of laser irradiation. Scale bar, 20 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Responses to repetitive photostimulation. (a) ΔF images show fluorescence changes after laser irradiation. Arrowheads point to the femtosecond laser targets. (b) Corresponding responses (ΔF/F) are plotted. Arrows indicate the onset of laser irradiation. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Fig. fig04
Fig. fig04

Supplementary Media 1. Photogenerated Ca2+ wave in astrocytes by femtosecond laser. Laser target is marked by white arrow. Scale bar, 100 μm.

Fig. fig05
Fig. fig05

Supplementary Media 2. Photogenerated pore on cell membrane and subsequent restoration after femtosecond laser irradiation. Laser target is marked by white arrow. Scale bar, 5 μm.

Fig. fig06
Fig. fig06

Supplementary Media 3. Photoporation on cell membrane labeled by FM 1-43. Laser target is marked by white arrow. Scale bar, 5 μm.

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