Abstract

Retinal layer thickness, evaluated as a function of spatial position from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is an important diagnostics marker for many retinal diseases. However, due to factors such as speckle noise, low image contrast, irregularly shaped morphological features such as retinal detachments, macular holes, and drusen, accurate segmentation of individual retinal layers is difficult. To address this issue, a computer method for retinal layer segmentation from OCT images is presented. An efficient two-step kernel-based optimization scheme is employed to first identify the approximate locations of the individual layers, which are then refined to obtain accurate segmentation results for the individual layers. The performance of the algorithm was tested on a set of retinal images acquired in-vivo from healthy and diseased rodent models with a high speed, high resolution OCT system. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides accurate segmentation for OCT images affected by speckle noise, even in sub-optimal conditions of low image contrast and presence of irregularly shaped structural features in the OCT images.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]

2009

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, "Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 17(18), 15659-15669 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15659.
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Puvanathasan, P. Forbes, Z. Ren, D. Malchow, S. Boyd and K. Bizheva, "High-speed, high-resolution Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography system for retinal imaging in the 1060 nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 33, 2479-2481 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

1999

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, "Geodesic active contours," Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61-97 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. F. Fercher, "Optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: active contour models," Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321-331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abràmoff, M.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Ahlers, C.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Apostolopoulos, M.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

Boyd, S.

Caselles, V.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, "Geodesic active contours," Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61-97 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Dastmalchi, S.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, "Optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forbes, P.

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garvin, M.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geitzenauer, W.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Georgopoulos, G.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeker, M.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga.Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joo, C.

Kaluzny, J. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kardon, R.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Kass, M.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: active contour models," Int. J. Comput. Vision 1(4), 321-331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, R.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, "Geodesic active contours," Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61-97 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koutsandrea, C.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Malchow, D.

Malik, J.

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miura, M.

Moschos, M.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Myllyl¨a, R.

Niemeijer, M.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papaconstantinou, D.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Perona, P.

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.

D. Fernández, H. Salinas and C. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13(25), 10200-10216 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puvanathasan, P.

Ren, Z.

Russell, S.

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salinas, H.

Sapiro, G.

V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and G. Sapiro, "Geodesic active contours," Int. J. Comput. Vision 22(1), 61-97 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, V. A.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Sikorski, B.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simader, C.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sonka, M.

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

Srinivasan, V. J.

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H. Ishikawa, D. Stein, Ga.Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. Fujimoto, and J. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. 46(6), 2012-2017 (2005).
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Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
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M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
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M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
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M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
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M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
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M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

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J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
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C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 197-203 (2008).
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S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, "Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma," Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373-379 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

M. Garvin, M. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, "Intraretinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Optimal 3-D Graph Search," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495-1505 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

M. Niemeijer, M. Garvin, B. van Ginneken, M. Sonka, M. Abràmoff, "Vessel segmentation in 3D spectral OCT scans of the retina," Proc. SPIE 6914, 69141R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. Schuman, and C. Hitzenberger, "Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction," Opt. Express 17(5), 3978-3979 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3978.
[CrossRef]

C. Leung, C. Cheung, R. Weinreb, K. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, C. Pang, R. Tse, and D. Lam, "Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma with optical coherence tomography guided progression analysis (GPA)," Invest. Ophthamal. Visual Sci. (2009), http://www.iovs.org/cgi/rapidpdf/iovs.09-3468v1.pdf.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M. Abràmoff, "Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images," Proc. SPIE: Medical Imaging 6512, (2007).

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M. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt. Phys. 9(6), 903-908 (1992), http://www. opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Demonstration of the initial layer local approximation step on an OCT image. (a) The sparse trellis (red lines with green nodes) is overlayed on the OCT image. A possible solution for a retinal layer is shown in blue. (b) The approximate locations of the retinal layers (cyan lines) overlayed on the OCT image.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Demonstration of the precise layer boundary optimization step on an OCT image. The dense trellis (red lines with green nodes) for a particular retinal layer is overlayed on the OCT image. The approximate location of the retinal layer used as an initial condition for the optimization is shown in cyan, while a possible solution for a retinal layer is shown in blue.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OCT cross-sectional tomograms (1000×250 pixels) of a healthy rat retina acquired in-vivo. Fig. 3(a) shows the raw (unprocessed) image, with a large blood vessel locate on the retinal surface (red arrow) and cross-sections of tiny capillaries imbedded in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the retina visible as black circular features (yellow arrows). Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 3(d) show 4x magnification of the region marked with the green box in Fig. 3(b), Fig. 3(e), and Fig. 3(f) show 4x magnification of the region marked with the yellow box in Fig. 3(b), containing cross-sections of retinal capillaries.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OCT cross-sectional tomograms (1000×250 pixels) of a diseased rat retina acquired in-vivo. Fig. 4(a) shows the original, unprocessed image, while the segmented image is shown in Fig. 4(b). Red arrow points at clusters of PR and RPE debris.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = s = 0 1 ( α ( v ( s ) ) 2 + ( β v ( s ) ) 2 Internal energy λ I ( v ( s ) ) External energy ) ds ,
E = s = 0 1 ( α ( v ( s ) ) 2 + λ ψ ( I ( v ( s ) ) ) 2 ) ds ,
ψ ( x ) = 1 1 + τ x 2 .
v = arg min v ( s = 0 1 ψ ( I ( v ( s ) ) ) v ( s ) ds ) .
v = arg min v 1 , v 2 v n ( Σ i = 1 q ψ i s i ) ,
v = { v 1 , v 2 , · · · , v n } where n = U Q .
v 1 * = arg min v ( s i ψ i ) ,
v 2 * = arg min v v 1 * ( s i ψ i ) ,
v 3 * = arg min v v 1 * , v 2 * ( s i ψ i ) ,
,
v z * = arg min v v 1 * , v 2 * , · · · , v z 1 * ( s i Ψ i ) .
V = { V ij } , { x ij , y ij } , i [ 1 , q ] , j [ 1 , u ] .
v m ( s ) = arg max j [ 1 , u ] ( p ( I | V ij ) ) , i [ 1 , q ] ,
p ( I | V ij ) = 1 Z ext exp ( ψ ( V ij ) ) ,
v * ( s ) = κ κ h ( k ) v m ( s k ) d k ,
h ( k ) = 1 z s exp ( ( v m ( s ) v m s k 2 σ s ) 2 ) 1 z t exp ( ( ψ ( v m ( s ) ) ψ ( v m ( s k ) ) 2 σ t ) 2 ) .

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