Abstract

An acoustic transient can be generated inside an absorbing tissue as a result of laser-tissue interaction after pulsed laser irradiation. Herein we report a novel application of this physical process, the optoacoustic wave generation in the inner ear and subsequently the induction of basilar membrane vibrations. These laser induced vibrations show a direct correlation to the laser energy and an indirect correlation to the distance from the irradiation focus. Through these characteristics they may be used, in a new generation of cochlear implants, to improve the frequency specific cochlear activation and consequently improve speech perception in hearing impaired patients with residual hearing.

© 2009 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. A. Sterling, “Primary ear and hearing care training resource CD-ROM” (2006) World-Health-Organisation, Stylus Publishing, LLC.
  3. A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Tongue, principles of vibration. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2002), Chap. 3.
  9. G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Baster, G. I. Wenzel, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Insertion -Force and -Depth of Laser Fibers Into a Cochlea Model”, Association for Research in Otolaryngology 33. Annual Midwinter Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 18 Feb. 2009.

2009 (1)

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, P. N.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anvari, B.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bader, C. R.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Balster, S.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Behari, J.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bendett, M.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, D.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brownell, W. E.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bruder, I.

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. H.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dallos, P.

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Ribaupierre, Y.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Emadi, G.

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S. K.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Izzo, A. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. M.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenarz, T.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. H.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lubatschowski, H.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massow, O.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oberheide, U.

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oghalai, J. S.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pikkula, B.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reich, U.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, G.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richter, C. P.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steele, C. R.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulfendahl, M.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, G. I.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. H.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokoo, S.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calcif. Tissue Res. (1)

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hear. Res. (1)

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. A. Sterling, “Primary ear and hearing care training resource CD-ROM” (2006) World-Health-Organisation, Stylus Publishing, LLC.

B. H. Tongue, principles of vibration. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2002), Chap. 3.

S. Baster, G. I. Wenzel, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Insertion -Force and -Depth of Laser Fibers Into a Cochlea Model”, Association for Research in Otolaryngology 33. Annual Midwinter Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 18 Feb. 2009.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics