Abstract

A hydrogel-based chemiresponsive sensor for monitoring H+ (pH) has been developed by coating the surface of a gold nanocrescent array structure with a thin film of a poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate)-based (poly-HEMA) hydrogel. The transmission measurement results of the close-packed gold nanocrescent array fabricated via electron beam lithography demonstrate near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance peaks with sensitivities up to 332nm/RIU in detecting refractive index change. Measurements of the hydrogel under solutions of increasing pH show the plasmon peak blueshifts by 17nm and the integrated transmission increases by 1.8 in the operating range of 4.5 – 6.4 pH, which is ideal for biochemical sensor applications.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (2)

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Sabarinathan, T. Manifar, and S. Mittler, “3-D FDTD Analysis of Gold-Nanoparticle-based Photonic Crystal on Slab Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(13), 2264–2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Bocchio, A. Unger, M. Alvarez, and M. Kreiter, “Thin Layer Sensing with Multipolar Plasmonic Resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(37), 14355–14359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Walker, K. W. Kimble, and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal sensor for organophosphate nerve agents utilizing the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(7-8), 2115–2124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Mack, J. W. Wackerly, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, J. S. Moore, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Optical transduction of chemical forces,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 733–737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. A. DeLouise, P. M. Fauchet, B. L. Miller, and A. A. Pentland, “Hydrogel-supported optical-microcavity sensors,” Adv. Mater. 17(18), 2199–2203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Marshall, J. Blyth, C. A. B. Davidson, and C. R. Lowe, “pH-sensitive holographic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(17), 4423–4431 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dawgul, D. G. Pijanowska, A. Krzyskow, J. Kruk, and W. Torbicz, “An influence of polyHEMA gate layer on properties of ChemFETs,” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 146–159 (2003).

1998 (1)

P. Englebienne, “Use of colloidal gold surface plasmon resonance peak shift to infer affinity constants from the interactions between protein antigens and antibodies specific for single or multiple epitopes,” Analyst (Lond.) 123(7), 1599–1603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. R. Khare and N. A. Peppas, “Swelling/deswelling of anionic copolymer gels,” Biomaterials 16(7), 559–567 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1956 (1)

S. Fisher and R. Kunin, “Effect of cross-linking on the properties of carboxylic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 60(8), 1030–1032 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

A. Katchalsky and P. Spitnik, “Potentiometric titrations of polymethacrylic acid,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 2, 432–446 (1947).

Abdulhalim, I.

M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, M.

N. L. Bocchio, A. Unger, M. Alvarez, and M. Kreiter, “Thin Layer Sensing with Multipolar Plasmonic Resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(37), 14355–14359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asher, S. A.

J. P. Walker, K. W. Kimble, and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal sensor for organophosphate nerve agents utilizing the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(7-8), 2115–2124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blyth, J.

A. J. Marshall, J. Blyth, C. A. B. Davidson, and C. R. Lowe, “pH-sensitive holographic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(17), 4423–4431 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocchio, N.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bocchio, N. L.

N. L. Bocchio, A. Unger, M. Alvarez, and M. Kreiter, “Thin Layer Sensing with Multipolar Plasmonic Resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(37), 14355–14359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukasov, R.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, C. A. B.

A. J. Marshall, J. Blyth, C. A. B. Davidson, and C. R. Lowe, “pH-sensitive holographic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(17), 4423–4431 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawgul, M.

M. Dawgul, D. G. Pijanowska, A. Krzyskow, J. Kruk, and W. Torbicz, “An influence of polyHEMA gate layer on properties of ChemFETs,” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 146–159 (2003).

DeLouise, L. A.

L. A. DeLouise, P. M. Fauchet, B. L. Miller, and A. A. Pentland, “Hydrogel-supported optical-microcavity sensors,” Adv. Mater. 17(18), 2199–2203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Englebienne, P.

P. Englebienne, “Use of colloidal gold surface plasmon resonance peak shift to infer affinity constants from the interactions between protein antigens and antibodies specific for single or multiple epitopes,” Analyst (Lond.) 123(7), 1599–1603 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

L. A. DeLouise, P. M. Fauchet, B. L. Miller, and A. A. Pentland, “Hydrogel-supported optical-microcavity sensors,” Adv. Mater. 17(18), 2199–2203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, S.

S. Fisher and R. Kunin, “Effect of cross-linking on the properties of carboxylic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 60(8), 1030–1032 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Förch, R.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goddard, N. J.

M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, G. P.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grady, N. K.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J. H.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanarp, P.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, N.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jonas, U.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katchalsky, A.

A. Katchalsky and P. Spitnik, “Potentiometric titrations of polymethacrylic acid,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 2, 432–446 (1947).

Khare, A. R.

A. R. Khare and N. A. Peppas, “Swelling/deswelling of anionic copolymer gels,” Biomaterials 16(7), 559–567 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, K. W.

J. P. Walker, K. W. Kimble, and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal sensor for organophosphate nerve agents utilizing the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(7-8), 2115–2124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreiter, M.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Bocchio, A. Unger, M. Alvarez, and M. Kreiter, “Thin Layer Sensing with Multipolar Plasmonic Resonances,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(37), 14355–14359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kruk, J.

M. Dawgul, D. G. Pijanowska, A. Krzyskow, J. Kruk, and W. Torbicz, “An influence of polyHEMA gate layer on properties of ChemFETs,” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 146–159 (2003).

Krzyskow, A.

M. Dawgul, D. G. Pijanowska, A. Krzyskow, J. Kruk, and W. Torbicz, “An influence of polyHEMA gate layer on properties of ChemFETs,” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 146–159 (2003).

Kunin, R.

S. Fisher and R. Kunin, “Effect of cross-linking on the properties of carboxylic polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. 60(8), 1030–1032 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, A. A.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, C. R.

A. J. Marshall, J. Blyth, C. A. B. Davidson, and C. R. Lowe, “pH-sensitive holographic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(17), 4423–4431 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, N. H.

N. H. Mack, J. W. Wackerly, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, J. S. Moore, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Optical transduction of chemical forces,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 733–737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malyarchuk, V.

N. H. Mack, J. W. Wackerly, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, J. S. Moore, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Optical transduction of chemical forces,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 733–737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manifar, T.

Marshall, A. J.

A. J. Marshall, J. Blyth, C. A. B. Davidson, and C. R. Lowe, “pH-sensitive holographic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(17), 4423–4431 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, B. L.

L. A. DeLouise, P. M. Fauchet, B. L. Miller, and A. A. Pentland, “Hydrogel-supported optical-microcavity sensors,” Adv. Mater. 17(18), 2199–2203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. M.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittler, S.

Mohr, S.

M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. S.

N. H. Mack, J. W. Wackerly, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, J. S. Moore, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Optical transduction of chemical forces,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 733–737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehl, C. L.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

N. H. Mack, J. W. Wackerly, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, J. S. Moore, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Optical transduction of chemical forces,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 733–737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pentland, A. A.

L. A. DeLouise, P. M. Fauchet, B. L. Miller, and A. A. Pentland, “Hydrogel-supported optical-microcavity sensors,” Adv. Mater. 17(18), 2199–2203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peppas, N. A.

A. R. Khare and N. A. Peppas, “Swelling/deswelling of anionic copolymer gels,” Biomaterials 16(7), 559–567 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pijanowska, D. G.

M. Dawgul, D. G. Pijanowska, A. Krzyskow, J. Kruk, and W. Torbicz, “An influence of polyHEMA gate layer on properties of ChemFETs,” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 146–159 (2003).

Retsch, M.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochholz, H.

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

N. H. Mack, J. W. Wackerly, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, J. S. Moore, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Optical transduction of chemical forces,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 733–737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabarinathan, J.

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonian, A.

M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spitnik, P.

A. Katchalsky and P. Spitnik, “Potentiometric titrations of polymethacrylic acid,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 2, 432–446 (1947).

Sutherland, D. S.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, F.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, “Scattering Spectra of Single Gold Nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4(12), 2355–2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamm, M.

M. Retsch, M. Tamm, N. Bocchio, N. Horn, R. Förch, U. Jonas, and M. Kreiter, “Parallel preparation of densely packed arrays of 150-nm gold-nanocrescent resonators in three dimensions,” Small 5(18), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torbicz, W.

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K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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M. Zourob, A. Simonian, J. Wild, S. Mohr, X. Fan, I. Abdulhalim, and N. J. Goddard, “Optical leaky waveguide biosensors for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides,” Analyst (Lond.) 132(2), 114–120 (2007).
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J. P. Walker, K. W. Kimble, and S. A. Asher, “Photonic crystal sensor for organophosphate nerve agents utilizing the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(7-8), 2115–2124 (2007).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication of the gold nanocrescent array. (a) SEM micrograph of the fabricated gold nanocrescent array structure. (b) SEM micrograph at a tilted angle of the developed photoresist thin film coated with gold. (c) Schematic of the fabrication process of the gold nanocrescents.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured and simulated extinction spectra of the fabricated device. The black line represents measurement on the bare device without coating and the red line represents measurement on the device coated with xerogel. The blue line represents simulation of the bare device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor response of the gold nanocrescent array structure coated with hydrogel thin film. (a) Measured extinction spectra of the device for detecting buffered solutions of increasing pH. (b) Response of λmax (black squares) and the integrated transmission (blue triangles) obtained from the measured extinction spectra. The solid lines are the titration curves fitted into the experimental data. (c) Sensitivity for shift of λmax (black curve) and sensitivity for transmission (blue curve) vs. pH calculated from the fitted response curves.

Equations (2)

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E x t ( λ ) = ln ( T ( λ ) ) = ln ( I( λ )/I ref ( λ ) )
pH=p K a -n log 1- α α

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