Abstract

This report presents a model-independent method of assessing contributions to the light scattering from individual organelles in single intact cells. We first measure the 3D index map of a living cell, and then modify the map in such a way so as to eliminate contrast due to a particular intracellular organelle. By calculating and comparing the light scattering distributions calculated from the original and modified index maps using the Rytov approximation, we extract the light scattering contribution from the particular organelle of interest. The relative contributions of the nucleus and nucleolus to the scattering of the entire cell are thus determined, and the applicability of the homogeneous spherical model to non-spherical and heterogeneous organelles in forward scattering is evaluated.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (1)

2008 (3)

W. Choi, C. C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light-scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1596–1598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. A. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, J. W. Tunnell, M. Hunter, M. Kalashnikov, C. Fang-Yen, S. F. Fulghum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3119–3121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, “Mie theory interpretations of light scattering from intact cells,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2442–2444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. P. Maltsev, “Scanning flow cytometry for individual particle analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 243–255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, “Differential Light Scattering from Spherical Mammalian Cells,” Biophys. J. 14(6), 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153–156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light-scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1596–1598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, J. W. Tunnell, M. Hunter, M. Kalashnikov, C. Fang-Yen, S. F. Fulghum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3119–3121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, A.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barer, R.

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellair, C. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I. J.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C. W.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunsting, A.

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, “Differential Light Scattering from Spherical Mammalian Cells,” Biophys. J. 14(6), 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Cipolloni, P. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curl, C. L.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light-scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1596–1598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, J. W. Tunnell, M. Hunter, M. Kalashnikov, C. Fang-Yen, S. F. Fulghum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3119–3121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

deGrooth, B. G.

Delbridge, L. M. D.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, A. J.

Doornbos, R. M. P.

Fang, H.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light-scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1596–1598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, J. W. Tunnell, M. Hunter, M. Kalashnikov, C. Fang-Yen, S. F. Fulghum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3119–3121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foster, T. H.

Freedman, S. D.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulghum, S. F.

Georgakoudi, I.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, V.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, C.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, P. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, A. G.

Hunter, M.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, J. W. Tunnell, M. Hunter, M. Kalashnikov, C. Fang-Yen, S. F. Fulghum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3119–3121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, L.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, J. W. Tunnell, M. Hunter, M. Kalashnikov, C. Fang-Yen, S. F. Fulghum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3119–3121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerer, L. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lau, C.

Levitt, J. M.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maltsev, V. P.

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Maltsev, “Scanning flow cytometry for individual particle analysis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 243–255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, C.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mullaney, P. F.

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, “Differential Light Scattering from Spherical Mammalian Cells,” Biophys. J. 14(6), 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Münger, K.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nines, R.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ollero, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J. A. Y.

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. A. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, (2008).
[PubMed]

Roberts, A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ross, K. F. A.

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaeffer, M.

Semyanov, K. A.

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shvalov, A. N.

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sloot, P. M. A.

Steele, V. E.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Stewart, A. G.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoner, G. D.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Stucenski, L. A.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y.

Tarasov, P. A.

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, F.

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tkaczyk, S.

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

van Bockstaele, D. R.

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, E.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: A new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. D.

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153–156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. T.

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. A. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, (2008).
[PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. A. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, (2008).
[PubMed]

Yang, C.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

Zaman, M. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zharinov, A. E.

A. E. Zharinov, P. A. Tarasov, A. N. Shvalov, K. A. Semyanov, D. R. van Bockstaele, and V. P. Maltsev, “A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 121–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, K. Badizadegan, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Cellular Organization and Substructure Measured Using Angle-Resolved Low-Coherence Interferometry,” Biophys. J. 82(4), 2256–2264 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, “Differential Light Scattering from Spherical Mammalian Cells,” Biophys. J. 14(6), 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In Situ Detection of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemopreventive Effects in Rat Esophagus Epithelium Using Angle-resolved Low-coherence Interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cytometry A (1)

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

C. Mujat, C. Greiner, A. Baldwin, J. M. Levitt, F. Tian, L. A. Stucenski, M. Hunter, Y. L. Kim, V. Backman, M. Feld, K. Münger, and I. Georgakoudi, “Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells,” Int. J. Cancer 122(2), 363–371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Xu, T. T. Wu, and J. A. Y. Qu, “Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, (2008).
[PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section of 3D refractive index tomograms and 2D angular scattering maps: (a) Original tomogram section of HT29 cell and (b) Tomogram section with nucleolus replaced with random nuclear index values. (c) Tomogram of the cell nucleus. The color bar indicates refractive index at wavelength of 633 nm. Scale bars indicate 5 μm. (d) Angular scattering intensity of the original cell tomogram. (e) Scattering intensity of the nucleolus. (f) Angular scattering of the nucleus. The color bar indicates intensity in logarithm base 10 with arbitrary units.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fitting the angular scattering distribution of nucleus with Mie theory: (a) The tomogram section of the nucleus is indicated with major axis (blue) and minor axis (red). (b) Angular scattering distribution along major axis (blue) and Mie theory fit (black). (c) Angular scattering distribution along major axis (red) and Mie theory fit (black). (d) Tomogram section of homogenized nuclear tomogram. (e) Scattering along major axis (blue) and Mie theory fit (black). (f) Scattering along minor axis (red) and Mie theory fit (black). The color bars in (a) and (d) indicate refractive index at the wavelength of 633 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of relative scattering strengths among the whole cell, the entire intracellular organelles, and the nucleus: (a) Tomogram of the HT29 cell in culture medium. (b) Tomogram of HT29 cell with index in the media matched to an average index of the whole cell. (c) Nuclear tomogram surrounded by the average index of the cytoplasm. Scale bars indicate 5 μm. (d) Angular scattering spectrum from the whole cell in the culture medium (blue), index-matched cell (green) and nucleus (red).

Equations (1)

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F^(Kx,Ky,Kz)=ikzπU^(S)(kx,ky)

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