Abstract

Manipulation of the eye’s aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) has shown that optical imperfections can affect the dynamic accommodation response. A limitation of current system designs used for such studies is an inability to make direct measurements of the eye’s aberrations during the experiment. We present an AO system which has a dual wavefront sensing channel. The corrective device is a 37-actuator piezoelectric deformable mirror. The measurements used to control the mirror, and direct measurements of the eye’s aberrations, are captured on a single Shack-Hartmann sensor. Other features of the system include stroke amplification of the deformable mirror and a rotating diffuser to reduce speckle. We demonstrate the utility of the system by investigating the impact of aberration dynamics on the control of steady-state accommodation on four subjects.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  27. K. M. Hampson, E. A. H. Mallen, and C. Dainty "Coherence function analysis of the higher-order aberrations of the human eye," Opt. Lett. 31, 184-186 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Diaz-Santana, V. Gu’eriaux, G. Arden, and S. Gruppetta, "New methodology to measure the dynamics of ocular wave front aberrations during small amplitude changes of accommodation," Opt. Express 15, 5649-5663 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. G. Doane, "Interactions of eyelid and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eye blink," A. J. Ophthal. 89, 507-516 (1988).
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  35. Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, "Open-loop corection of horizontal turbulence: system design and result," Appl. Opt. 47, 4297-4301 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  37. M. J. Collins and B. A. Davis, "Microfluctuations of accommodation and spherical aberration," Clin. Exp. Optom. 80, 234 (1997).

2009 (4)

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated," J. Vis. 9, 1-15 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Day, D. Seidel, L. S. Gray, and N. C. Strang, "The effect of modulating ocular depth of focus upon accommodation microfluctuations in myopic and emmetropic subjects," Vision Res. 49, 211-218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Chin, K. M. Hampson, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Role of ocular aberrations in dynamic accommodation control," Clin. Exp. Optom. 92, 227-237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, "Open-loop corection of horizontal turbulence: system design and result," Appl. Opt. 47, 4297-4301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Hampson, S. S. Chin, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Binocular Shack-Hartmann sensor for the human eye," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 703-716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hampson, "Topical review: Adaptive optics and vision," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3425-3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Iskander, M. J. Collins, M. R. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, M. J. Albanese, Y. Zhou, T. Bifano, and S. A. Burns, "Stroke amplifier for deformable mirrors," Appl. Opt. 43, 5330-5333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 833-839 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

1998 (1)

K. Niwa and T. Tokoro, "Influence of spatial distribution with blur on fluctuations in accommodation," Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 227-232 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

L. N. Thibos, W. Wheeler, and D. Horner, "Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis," Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 367-375 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins and B. A. Davis, "Microfluctuations of accommodation and spherical aberration," Clin. Exp. Optom. 80, 234 (1997).

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the flutuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17, 316-323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 258-265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodation microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33, 2083-2090 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Walsh andW. N. Charman, "The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 398-404 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: A review," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Doane, "Interactions of eyelid and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eye blink," A. J. Ophthal. 89, 507-516 (1988).

1986 (1)

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

E. F. Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381-393 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1882 (1)

P. Denieul, "Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, micofluctuations of accommodation and the optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22, 561-569 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Albanese, M. J.

Allen, P. M.

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

Arag’on, J. L.

Arden, G.

Artal, P.

Atchison, D. A.

L. R. Stark, N. C. Strang, and D. A. Atchison, "Dynamic accommodation response in the presence of astigmatism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2228-2236, (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the flutuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17, 316-323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T.

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Calver, R. I.

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Charman, W. N.

G. Walsh andW. N. Charman, "The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 398-404 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: A review," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chin, S. S.

S. S. Chin, K. M. Hampson, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Role of ocular aberrations in dynamic accommodation control," Clin. Exp. Optom. 92, 227-237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Hampson, S. S. Chin, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Binocular Shack-Hartmann sensor for the human eye," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 703-716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collins, M. J.

D. R. Iskander, M. J. Collins, M. R. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins and B. A. Davis, "Microfluctuations of accommodation and spherical aberration," Clin. Exp. Optom. 80, 234 (1997).

Dainty, C.

Davis, B. A.

M. J. Collins and B. A. Davis, "Microfluctuations of accommodation and spherical aberration," Clin. Exp. Optom. 80, 234 (1997).

Day, M.

M. Day, D. Seidel, L. S. Gray, and N. C. Strang, "The effect of modulating ocular depth of focus upon accommodation microfluctuations in myopic and emmetropic subjects," Vision Res. 49, 211-218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Decker, K. E.

Denieul, P.

P. Denieul, "Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, micofluctuations of accommodation and the optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22, 561-569 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Santana, L.

Doane, M. G.

M. G. Doane, "Interactions of eyelid and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eye blink," A. J. Ophthal. 89, 507-516 (1988).

Dorronsoro, C.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated," J. Vis. 9, 1-15 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fern’andez, E. J.

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381-393 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambra, E.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated," J. Vis. 9, 1-15 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilmartin, B.

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodation microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33, 2083-2090 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 258-265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gray, L. S.

M. Day, D. Seidel, L. S. Gray, and N. C. Strang, "The effect of modulating ocular depth of focus upon accommodation microfluctuations in myopic and emmetropic subjects," Vision Res. 49, 211-218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodation microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33, 2083-2090 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 258-265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gruppetta, S.

Gu’eriaux, V.

Hampson, K. M.

S. S. Chin, K. M. Hampson, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Role of ocular aberrations in dynamic accommodation control," Clin. Exp. Optom. 92, 227-237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Hampson, "Topical review: Adaptive optics and vision," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3425-3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hampson, S. S. Chin, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Binocular Shack-Hartmann sensor for the human eye," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 703-716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hampson, C. Paterson, C. Dainty, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Adaptive optics system for investigation of the effect of the aberration dynamics of the human eye on steady-state accommodation control," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1082-1088 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hampson, E. A. H. Mallen, and C. Dainty "Coherence function analysis of the higher-order aberrations of the human eye," Opt. Lett. 31, 184-186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, J. E. Lefebvre, and C. L. Koliopoulos, "Real-time atmospheric compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 360-369 (2001).

Heron, G.

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: A review," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horner, D.

L. N. Thibos, W. Wheeler, and D. Horner, "Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis," Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 367-375 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

Iglesias, I.

Iskander, D. R.

D. R. Iskander, M. J. Collins, M. R. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

J. W. Hardy, J. E. Lefebvre, and C. L. Koliopoulos, "Real-time atmospheric compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 360-369 (2001).

Kruger, P. B.

Lefebvre, J. E.

J. W. Hardy, J. E. Lefebvre, and C. L. Koliopoulos, "Real-time atmospheric compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 360-369 (2001).

Li, D.

Mallen, E. A. H.

Marcos, S.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated," J. Vis. 9, 1-15 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morelande, M. R.

D. R. Iskander, M. J. Collins, M. R. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mu, Q.

Niwa, K.

K. Niwa and T. Tokoro, "Influence of spatial distribution with blur on fluctuations in accommodation," Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 227-232 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, D. J.

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, C.

Radhakrishnan, H.

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rae, S. M.

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A.

Sawides, L.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated," J. Vis. 9, 1-15 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

Seidel, D.

M. Day, D. Seidel, L. S. Gray, and N. C. Strang, "The effect of modulating ocular depth of focus upon accommodation microfluctuations in myopic and emmetropic subjects," Vision Res. 49, 211-218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Stark, L. R.

L. R. Stark, N. C. Strang, and D. A. Atchison, "Dynamic accommodation response in the presence of astigmatism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2228-2236, (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the flutuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17, 316-323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strang, N. C.

M. Day, D. Seidel, L. S. Gray, and N. C. Strang, "The effect of modulating ocular depth of focus upon accommodation microfluctuations in myopic and emmetropic subjects," Vision Res. 49, 211-218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Stark, N. C. Strang, and D. A. Atchison, "Dynamic accommodation response in the presence of astigmatism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2228-2236, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theagarayan, B.

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

L. N. Thibos, W. Wheeler, and D. Horner, "Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis," Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 367-375 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokoro, T.

K. Niwa and T. Tokoro, "Influence of spatial distribution with blur on fluctuations in accommodation," Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 227-232 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, G.

G. Walsh andW. N. Charman, "The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 398-404 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

Webb, R. H.

Wheeler, W.

L. N. Thibos, W. Wheeler, and D. Horner, "Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis," Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 367-375 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, B. J.

Winn, B.

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodation microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33, 2083-2090 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 258-265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L.

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, M.

D. R. Iskander, M. J. Collins, M. R. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
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A. J. Ophthal. (1)

M. G. Doane, "Interactions of eyelid and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eye blink," A. J. Ophthal. 89, 507-516 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Brit. J. Ophthal. (1)

E. F. Fincham, "The accommodation reflex and its stimulus," Brit. J. Ophthal. 35, 381-393 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (2)

S. S. Chin, K. M. Hampson, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Role of ocular aberrations in dynamic accommodation control," Clin. Exp. Optom. 92, 227-237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins and B. A. Davis, "Microfluctuations of accommodation and spherical aberration," Clin. Exp. Optom. 80, 234 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. R. Iskander, M. J. Collins, M. R. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. M. Hampson, S. S. Chin, and E. A. H. Mallen, "Binocular Shack-Hartmann sensor for the human eye," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 703-716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hampson, "Topical review: Adaptive optics and vision," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3425-3467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

J. Vis. (2)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated," J. Vis. 9, 1-15 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (4)

B. Theagarayan, H. Radhakrishnan, P. M. Allen, R. I. Calver, S. M. Rae, and D. J. O’Leary, "The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 29, 65-71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: A review," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8, 153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Walsh andW. N. Charman, "The effect of defocus on the contrast and phase of the retinal image of a sinusoidal grating," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 9, 398-404 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13, 258-265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the flutuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17, 316-323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

K. Niwa and T. Tokoro, "Influence of spatial distribution with blur on fluctuations in accommodation," Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 227-232 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, W. Wheeler, and D. Horner, "Power vectors: an application of Fourier analysis," Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 367-375 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

P. Denieul, "Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, micofluctuations of accommodation and the optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22, 561-569 (1882).
[CrossRef]

M. Day, D. Seidel, L. S. Gray, and N. C. Strang, "The effect of modulating ocular depth of focus upon accommodation microfluctuations in myopic and emmetropic subjects," Vision Res. 49, 211-218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodation microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33, 2083-2090 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

British Standards: Safety of Laser Products, 60825-1:1994.

B. Winn, "Accommodative microfluctuations: a mechanism for steady-state control of accommodation," in Accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the visual system, O. Franz’en, H. Richter, and L. Stark, eds. (Birkh¨auser Verlag Basel, Switzerland, 2000), 129-140.

J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, Random data: analysis and measurement procedures, (Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) Adaptive optics system. L, lens, (focal length in millimeters); PM, plane mirror; A, aperture; PBS and CBS, pellicle and cube beamsplitter respectively (transmission: reflection).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical Shack-Hartmann spots from the eye of one subject. (a) Without the diffuser in place. (b) With the diffuser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) The path of the beam at beamsplitter CBS. (a) 50% of the light is reflected and directed towards the sensor providing direct measurement of the eye’s aberrations. (b) 50% of the light passes onto the deformable mirror before reaching the sensor. This channel is used to manipulate the eye’s aberrations. Stroke amplification has been omitted for clarity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Principle of stroke amplification. (a) On the ingoing path a mesa of height a is introduced into the wavefront. (b) On the return path the mesa in the wavefront strikes the same part of the deformable mirror resulting in the height now becoming 2a.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) Mode coupling when generating Zernike polynomials. Each plot shows how effectively a particular mode is independently generated.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Color online) Demonstration of the equivalence of both measurement paths using spherical and cylindrical lenses. (a)–(d) Measurements obtained in the eye (red) and aberration manipulation (blue) channels against the actual trial lens powers. (e)–(h) Bland and Altman plots showing the difference between the measurements of the two channels against their mean. Dashed lines represent 95% limits of agreement.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(Color online) Typical time-course records of the accommodation fluctuations for the baseline condition for each subject.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Color online) Average area under the PSD across subjects for each condition in the low frequency region (0.05–0.6 Hz). Error bars indicate ±1 SD.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ac=43·C20125·C40+247·C60R2
vcorrect(ti+1)=g * C * (ZmeasZreq)+vcorrect(ti)
vinvert(ti+1)=g*C*(Zmeas+Zeye)+vinvert(ti)
vinvert(ti+1)=g*C*(Zmeas+ZeyeZbias)+vinvert(ti)

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