Abstract

High-speed optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) has enabled practical wide-field microscopic imaging in the biological laboratory and clinical medicine. The imaging speed of OFDI, and therefore the field of view, of current systems is limited by the rate at which data can be digitized and archived rather than the system sensitivity or laser performance. One solution to this bottleneck is to natively digitize OFDI signals at reduced bit depths, e.g., at 8-bit depth rather than the conventional 12-14 bit depth, thereby reducing overall bandwidth. However, the implications of reduced bit-depth acquisition on image quality have not been studied. In this paper, we use simulations and empirical studies to evaluate the effects of reduced depth acquisition on OFDI image quality. We show that image acquisition at 8-bit depth allows high system sensitivity with only a minimal drop in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to higher bit-depth systems. Images of a human coronary artery acquired in vivo at 8-bit depth are presented and compared with images at higher bit-depth acquisition.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  2. M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  3. J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
  4. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
  6. B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  7. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  9. G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).
  10. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  11. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  12. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  13. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  14. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).
  15. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  16. P. Tomlins and R. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
  17. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, H. Sumimura, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6184–6191 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  18. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  19. Y. Chen, D. M. de Bruin, C. Kerbage, and J. F. de Boer, “Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16390–16399 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  21. H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  22. M. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044009 (2005).
  23. A. V. Oppenheim, and R. W. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Inc, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999).
  24. S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  25. C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  26. I. Analog Devices, Data Conversion Handbook (Newnes, 2004).
  27. B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
    [PubMed]

2008 (4)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (2)

2003 (6)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

Adler, D. C.

Aoki, G.

Bartlett, L. A.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

Biedermann, B. R.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

Choma, M.

M. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044009 (2005).

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. M. de Bruin, C. Kerbage, and J. F. de Boer, “Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16390–16399 (2007).
[PubMed]

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

de Bruin, D. M.

Desjardins, A. E.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Endo, T.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Freilich, M. I.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hsu, K.

M. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044009 (2005).

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

M. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044009 (2005).

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[PubMed]

Jang, I.-K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kerbage, C.

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lee, E. C.

Leitgeb, R.

Lim, H.

Makita, S.

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J. S.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[PubMed]

Oh, W.-Y.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

Palte, G.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pham, T. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

Pierce, M. C.

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

Sarunic, M.

Saxer, C.

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

Sumimura, H.

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[PubMed]

Tomlins, P.

P. Tomlins and R. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).

Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

Wang, R.

P. Tomlins and R. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).

Waxman, S.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S.

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yelin, R.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yun, S.-H.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Ultrahigh-speed optical frequency domain imaging and application to laser ablation monitoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103902–103903 (2006).

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).

J Am Coll Cardiol Img (1)

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-Dimensional Coronary Artery Microscopy by Intracoronary Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J Am Coll Cardiol Img 1, 752–761 (2008).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. Izatt, “Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044009 (2005).

J. Phys. D. (1)

P. Tomlins and R. Wang, “Theory, developments and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).

Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, H. Sumimura, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6184–6191 (2004).
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. M. de Bruin, C. Kerbage, and J. F. de Boer, “Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16390–16399 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
[PubMed]

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
[PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8916–8937 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

I. Analog Devices, Data Conversion Handbook (Newnes, 2004).

A. V. Oppenheim, and R. W. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Inc, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OFDI system schematic. The output of a wavelength swept laser was directed to sample and reference arms via a 90/10 coupler. The sample arm consisted of a benchtop galvo scanner for fixed sample imaging. The reference consisted of an ND filter and a fixed mirror as well as an 80/20 coupler to generate a TTL pulse for DAQ board triggering. The reference arm contained a frequency shifter (FS). Both reference and sample arms contained free space polarization beam splitters (PBS). The arms were recombined with 50/50 couplers and sent to two dual balanced receivers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DAQ noise (left) and DAQ plus thermal noise (right) measurements at 3,1.6, and 1V Vmax. Noise values are shown in units of 10*log10(pA2/Hz).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shot plus RIN noise as a function of reference arm power. The dashed line is the fit to Eq. (8) with γ equal to 0.83 and PRIN equal to 2.48E-15. Measured data points are shown as green crosses. Noise is displayed in units of 10*log10(pA2/Hz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SNR as a function of bit-depth from 6 to 14 bits at four sample arm attenuation levels (44.3,65.8,75.2,86.6 dB) and a 1V Vmax. Dashed lines are theoretical SNR values using the measured shot, RIN, thermal, and DAQ noises along with the quantization noise model. Measured values are shown as closed circles with error bars representing the standard deviation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Change in SNR as a function of bit-depth. The same sample arm attenuation values are used as in Fig. 4. The curves overlap up to 8 bits and cannot be distinguished. The SNR loss at 8 bits for all curves is ~0.6 dB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images from a human coronary acquired in vivo showing a calcific nodule (arrow). (A) Original (14 bit) data. (B) Reprocessed (8 bit) data. Scale bar, 500 µm. (C) and (D) Zoomed in portion of the calcific nodule.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images from a human coronary acquired in vivo showing a highly reflective metal stent (A) Original (14 bit) data. (B) Reprocessed (8 bit) data. Scale bar, 500 µm. (C) and (D) Zoomed in section highlighting the high reflection metal stent.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=Iref+Isam+2*Iref*Isamcos(2kz)
σn2=σth2+σshot2+σRIN2+σDAQ2.
σshot2=2e(ηehν)(Pref+Psam),
σRIN2=(ηehν)2τcoh(Pref+Psam)2,
Sensitivity[dB]=10log(ηPsamhνfA).
Δ=Vmax2b.
σqn2=Δ212.
σn2=γ2e(ηehν)Pref+PRIN(ηehν)2(Pref)2
V'=V/Δb*Δb
Index'=Indexrem(Index/bitRatio)

Metrics