Abstract

Hyperspectral profiles of downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance in natural waters (oligotrophic and mesotrophic) are combined with inverse radiative transfer to obtain high resolution spectra of the absorption coefficient (a) and the backscattering coefficient (bb) of the water and its constituents. The absorption coefficient at the mesotrophic station clearly shows spectral absorption features attributable to several phytoplankton pigments (Chlorophyll a, b, c, and Carotenoids). The backscattering shows only weak spectral features and can be well represented by a power-law variation with wavelength (λ): bb ~λ n, where n is a constant between 0.4 and 1.0. However, the weak spectral features in bb suggest that it is depressed in spectral regions of strong particle absorption. The applicability of the present inverse radiative transfer algorithm, which omits the influence of Raman scattering, is limited to λ < 490 nm in oligotrophic waters and λ < 575 nm in mesotrophic waters.

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2009

2008

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, and I. Brown, “Scattering error corrections for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,480–19,492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon, E. Shybanov, M. E.-G. Lee, and G. Zibordi, “Measurements and modeling of the volume scattering function in the coastal northern Adriatic Sea,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5189–5203 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 53(9), 1439–1459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

2001

2000

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3166–3174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1995

J. R. V. Zaneveld and J. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7C7), 13,309–13,320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In situ measurements of inelastic light scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,227–13,236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. R. Gordon, “The sensitivity of radiative transfer to small-angle scattering in the ocean: A quantitative assessment,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7505–7511 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of major groups of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

1983

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

Bartlett, J. S.

Berthon, J.-F.

Bissett, P.

Boss, E.

Bowles, J.

Boynton, G. C.

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brown, I.

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, and I. Brown, “Scattering error corrections for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,480–19,492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 53(9), 1439–1459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Claustre, H.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Donaghay, P. L.

Downes, T. V.

Fisher, J.

Freeman, S. A.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of scattering to discriminate particle types in Coastal Waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

Ge, Y.

Y. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In situ measurements of inelastic light scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,227–13,236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 53(9), 1439–1459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gray, D.

He, M.-X.

Hoepffner, N.

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of major groups of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J.

J. R. V. Zaneveld and J. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7C7), 13,309–13,320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korwan, D.

Leathers, R. A.

Lee, M. E.-G.

Maritorena, S.

Marshall, B. R.

McKee, D.

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, and I. Brown, “Scattering error corrections for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,480–19,492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Millie, D. F.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moline, M. A.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. M.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 53(9), 1439–1459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

Pegau, W. S.

Peterson, A. R.

Piskozub, J.

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, and I. Brown, “Scattering error corrections for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19,480–19,492 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ras, J.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 53(9), 1439–1459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reisse, R. A.

Rhea, W. J.

Rhoades, B.

Sathyendranath, S.

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of major groups of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C12C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E.

Siegel, D. A.

Smith, R. C.

Snyder, W. A.

Sogandares, F. M.

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

Tieche, F.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the ‘clearest’ natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217–239 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of scattering to discriminate particle types in Coastal Waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vodacek, A.

Voss, K. J.

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In situ measurements of inelastic light scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,227–13,236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld and J. Kitchen, “The variation in the inherent optical properties of phytoplankton near an absorption peak as determined by various models of cell structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7C7), 13,309–13,320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zibordi, G.

Appl. Opt.

R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical Modeling of Clear Ocean Light Fields: Raman Scattering Effects,” Appl. Opt. 27(19), 4002–4011 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Marshall and R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29(1), 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “The sensitivity of radiative transfer to small-angle scattering in the ocean: A quantitative assessment,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7505–7511 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and G. C. Boynton, “Radiance-irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: homogeneous waters,” Appl. Opt. 36(12), 2636–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and G. C. Boynton, “Radiance-irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: vertically stratified water bodies,” Appl. Opt. 37(18), 3886–3896 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3166–3174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Sogandares and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (340-640 nm) of pure water. I. Photothermal measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8699–8709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
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Biogeosciences

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vertical profiles of Ed off Lanai, Hawaii. Legend: wavelength in nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical profiles of Lu off Lanai, Hawaii (same location as Fig. 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of retrieved and in situ vertical profiles of absorption at 443 nm at the station off Lanai, Hawaii.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of retrieved and in situ vertical profiles of backscattering at 462 nm at the station off Lanai, Hawaii.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved absorption (left scale) and backscattering (right scale) coefficients (in m−1) for waters off Lanai, Hawaii. The retrieved quantities are averaged from 20 to 90 m.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same data as Fig. 5 but with the absorption and backscattering of pure seawater removed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieved absorption (left scale) and backscattering (right scale) coefficients for waters off San Diego. The retrieved quantities are averaged from 5 to 19 m. The measured backscattering plotted at 650 nm is really that at 657 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same data as Fig. 7 but with the absorption and backscattering of pure seawater removed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Estimated absorption coefficient (averaged from 5 to 19 m) of particles for the San Diego station.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison between −Δbbp (λ) (right scale) and ap (λ) (left scale) indicating the depression of particle backscattering through the phytoplankton absorption bands.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 IOPs and the differences between the true and inverted IOPs (in m−1) averaged over 20 to 90 m for the simulated data set that included Raman scattering, but for which Raman scattering was ignored in the inversion, as a function of wavelength (in nm).

Tables Icon

Table 2 IOPs and the differences between the true and inverted IOPs (in m−1) averaged from 5 to 20 m, for the simulated data set that included Raman scattering, but for which Raman scattering was ignored in the inversion, as a function of wavelength (in nm). Key: Same as Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 3 IOPs and the differences between the true and inverted IOPs (in m−1) at 450 nm averaged from 5 to 20 m, for the simulated data set that included Raman scattering, but for which Raman scattering was ignored in the inversion. In this case cp was held constant as ap varies. Key: Same as Table 1.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ξ^=e^xsinθcosφ+e^ysinθsinφ+e^zcosθ,
ξ^e^zdL(z,ξ^)dz=c(z)L(z,ξ^)+allξ^β(z,ξ^ξ^)L(z,ξ^)  dΩ(ξ^),
b(z)allξ^β(z,ξ^ξ^)  dΩ(ξ^),
a(z)=c(z)b(z).
bb(z)all   ξ^ξ^0β(z,ξ^ξ^)  dΩ(ξ^).
P(z,ξ^ξ^)=β(z,ξ^ξ^)b(z).
β(z,ξ^ξ^)=βw(z,ξ^ξ^)+βp(z,ξ^ξ^),
Ed(z)ξ^e^z>0ξ^e^zL(z,ξ^)  dΩ(ξ^),
Eu(z)ξ^e^z<0|ξ^e^z|L(z,ξ^)  dΩ(ξ^),
E0(z)allξ^L(z,ξ^)  dΩ(ξ^),
RL(z)=Lu(z)Ed(z),
Kx(z)=dnEx(z)dz,
μ¯(z)=Ed(z)Eu(z)E0(z).
a(z)=μ¯(z)KV(z),
KV(z)=dn(Ed(z)Eu(z))dz.
P(z,ξ^ξ^)=η(z)Pw(ξ^ξ^)+(1η(z))Pp(ξ^ξ^),
J(z,ξ^,λ)=allξ^,allλeβr(z,ξ^ξ^,λeλ)L(z,ξ^,λe)  dΩ(ξ^)dλe
βr(z,ξ^ξ^,λeλ)=316π(1+3ρ1+2ρ)(1+γ(ξ^ξ^)2)br(z,λeλ)
br(z,λeλ)=allξ^βr(z,ξ^ξ^,λeλ)  dΩ(ξ^)=allξ^βr(z,ξ^ξ^,λeλ)  dΩ(ξ^).
allξ^J(z,ξ^,λ)  dΩ(ξ^)=allλeE0(z,λe)br(z,λeλ)  dλeE0(z,λ¯e)allλebr(z,λeλ)  dλe
br(z,λ)=allλebr(z,λeλ)  dλe=2.61×104(589λ)4.8±0.3
a(z,λ)=μ¯(z,λ)KV(z,λ)+E0(z,λ¯e)E0(z,λ)br(z,λ)

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