Abstract

A composite nanoresonant structure is developed for sensitivity enhancement in biorecognition reactions by coupling between the localized resonance and the propagating surface plasmon polariton waves. The resonant structure was accomplished by combining holographic lithography with an oblique metallic deposition for cost-effective, large-area, and reconfigurable fabrication. The metallodielectric nanostructure was assembled with microfluidic channels and examined for biorecognition reactions, which showed pronounced improvement in the limit of detection compared to conventional nanohole array sensing configurations. The temperature influence on the binding affinity and the effectiveness of the control channel were also investigated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed composite nanoresonant surface plasmon resonance array sensor.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3(1), 79–88 (1982/83).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. Lawrence, N. J. Geddes, D. N. Furlong, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon resonance studies of immunoreactions utilizing disposable diffraction gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(4), 389–400 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hanarp, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical Properties of Short-Range Ordered Arrays of Nanometer Gold Disks Prepared by Colloidal Lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Pang, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of the splitting of degenerate surface plasmon polariton modes in a two-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006), Chap.1.
  17. F. Yu and W. Knoll, “Immunosensor with self-referencing based on surface plasmon diffraction,” Anal. Chem. 76(7), 1971–1975 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. G. Myszka, “Improving biosensor analysis,” J. Mol. Recognit. 12(5), 279–284 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of the splitting of degenerate surface plasmon polariton modes in a two-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Yu and W. Knoll, “Immunosensor with self-referencing based on surface plasmon diffraction,” Anal. Chem. 76(7), 1971–1975 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Hanarp, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical Properties of Short-Range Ordered Arrays of Nanometer Gold Disks Prepared by Colloidal Lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. G. Myszka, “Improving biosensor analysis,” J. Mol. Recognit. 12(5), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. R. Lawrence, N. J. Geddes, D. N. Furlong, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon resonance studies of immunoreactions utilizing disposable diffraction gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(4), 389–400 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, C. T.

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dahlin, A.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of the splitting of degenerate surface plasmon polariton modes in a two-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furlong, D. N.

C. R. Lawrence, N. J. Geddes, D. N. Furlong, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon resonance studies of immunoreactions utilizing disposable diffraction gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(4), 389–400 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, N. J.

C. R. Lawrence, N. J. Geddes, D. N. Furlong, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon resonance studies of immunoreactions utilizing disposable diffraction gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(4), 389–400 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanarp, P.

P. Hanarp, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical Properties of Short-Range Ordered Arrays of Nanometer Gold Disks Prepared by Colloidal Lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Höök, F.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, G. M.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hanarp, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical Properties of Short-Range Ordered Arrays of Nanometer Gold Disks Prepared by Colloidal Lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

F. Yu and W. Knoll, “Immunosensor with self-referencing based on surface plasmon diffraction,” Anal. Chem. 76(7), 1971–1975 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, C. R.

C. R. Lawrence, N. J. Geddes, D. N. Furlong, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon resonance studies of immunoreactions utilizing disposable diffraction gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(4), 389–400 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lesuffleur, A.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3(1), 79–88 (1982/83).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3(1), 79–88 (1982/83).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. B.

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minhas, B.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myszka, D. G.

D. G. Myszka, “Improving biosensor analysis,” J. Mol. Recognit. 12(5), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nenninger, G. G.

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3(1), 79–88 (1982/83).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

L. Pang, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of the splitting of degenerate surface plasmon polariton modes in a two-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, B.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, B. D.

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rindzevicius, T.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, H.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

C. R. Lawrence, N. J. Geddes, D. N. Furlong, and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon resonance studies of immunoreactions utilizing disposable diffraction gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(4), 389–400 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsky, B.

L. Pang, G. M. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, E.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hanarp, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Optical Properties of Short-Range Ordered Arrays of Nanometer Gold Disks Prepared by Colloidal Lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

L. Pang, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of the splitting of degenerate surface plasmon polariton modes in a two-dimensional metallic nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Urbaniczky, C.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143(2), 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: The Long Range Distance Dependence of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Noble Metal Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(1), 109–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

H. B. Lu, J. Homola, C. T. Campbell, G. G. Nenninger, S. S. Yee, and B. D. Ratner, “Protein contact printing for a surface Plasmon resonance biosensor with on-chip referencing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 91–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F.

F. Yu and W. Knoll, “Immunosensor with self-referencing based on surface plasmon diffraction,” Anal. Chem. 76(7), 1971–1975 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, S.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conceptual diagram of a 3-D nanoresonator array structure combining LSPRs and SPP in a metal film perforated by 2-D nanohole. (b) Schematic diagram of the proposed nanovoid geometry for practical realization of LSPRs coupled with SPP in a 2-D metal film perforated with nanohole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field FEM simulation for simultaneous excitations of LSPR and SPP. (a)-(c) The intensity distribution of the electric field in the MMN substrate on the water-metal interface. (d)-(f) The intensity distribution with the same scale for a conventional nanohole structure. (g)-(i) The rescaled field distribution of the nanohole structure. (a), (d) and (g) show the field intensity distribution in the x direction ( |Ex|2 ) or along the metal surface. (b), (e) and (h) are the close-ups of the nanoresonantor or nanohole area. (c), (f) and (i) correspond to the field intensity in the y direction ( |Ey|2 ), or normal to the metal surface. The units for the dimensions are meters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication schematic of the nanovoid resonant. ARC is used to avoid back-reflection of UV light from forming fringes on the photoresist during the holographic lithography. (a) Processing of thick resist layer; (b) Exposure and development; (c) Oblique deposition of metal layer. The bottom drawing in each figure shows the 3-dimensional sketch in each procedure. (d) SEM photograph of fabricated composite metallodielectric nanostructure. (a) Cross section of the nanovoid structure. (e) Top view of the voids that had been sealed due to over deposition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measurement setup layout on the optical table and the microfluidic system. The upper left inset shows an assembled sensor chip with three channels connected with tubes and the upper right inset shows the microfluidic channels on the nanoresonant gold surface. (b) Schematic of the setup; (c) Angular spectra of the nanoresonant array sensor with water inside the channel; the two weak resonant spectra in larger angle of incidence correspond to PDMS-Au SPP modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Real-time monitoring of binding between biotinylated BSA and streptavidin following the immobilization of biotinylated BSA in the signal channel and BSA in the control channel. Red, green, and blue curves correspond to control, shifted control, and signal channels, respectively. The inset in (a) is a close-up in signal and shifted control channels after they reached the same temperature. (b) Relative wavelength shift for the binding reactions by subtracting the shifted control (green) from the signal channel (blue).

Equations (1)

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SS=​    SB2hLpd​ ​           (neffn)B2hLpd​                                                                                                              (1)

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