Abstract

The spatial distribution of the site enhancement for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the regular nanoparticle arrays has been investigated by the confocal Raman microscopy. It was found that the spatial distribution of the Raman signals on the well-ordered nanoparticle arrays was very inhomogeneous and concentrated on the defects of the nanoparticle arrays. The SERS signals were also observed to depend on the thickness of silver film and the defect density. It has been demonstrated that the number of SERS active sites can be increased ten folds by trimming the size of nanoparticles using oxygen plasma.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using metallic nanostructures,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 17(8-9), 557–582 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and J. Kneipp, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates-from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(7), 443–450 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D. Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9463–9483 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. E. Brus, “Ag nanocrystal junctions as the site for surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single rhodamine 6G molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11965–11971 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. P. W. Pieczonka and R. F. Aroca, “Single molecule analysis by surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 946–954 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Fang, N.-H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. Bailo and V. Deckert, “Tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 921–930 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
    [PubMed]

2008 (8)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. W. Pieczonka and R. F. Aroca, “Single molecule analysis by surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 946–954 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, N.-H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bailo and V. Deckert, “Tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 921–930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and J. Kneipp, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates-from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(7), 443–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D. Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9463–9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. E. Brus, “Ag nanocrystal junctions as the site for surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single rhodamine 6G molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11965–11971 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using metallic nanostructures,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 17(8-9), 557–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aroca, R. F.

N. P. W. Pieczonka and R. F. Aroca, “Single molecule analysis by surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 946–954 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubard, J.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bailo, E.

E. Bailo and V. Deckert, “Tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 921–930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banholzer, M. J.

M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brus, L. E.

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. E. Brus, “Ag nanocrystal junctions as the site for surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single rhodamine 6G molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11965–11971 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cintra, S.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

E. Bailo and V. Deckert, “Tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 921–930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dick, L. A.

L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dieringer, J. A.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dlott, D. D.

Y. Fang, N.-H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, N.-H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, E.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. E. Brus, “Ag nanocrystal junctions as the site for surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single rhodamine 6G molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11965–11971 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kelf, T. A.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and J. Kneipp, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates-from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(7), 443–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, J.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and J. Kneipp, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates-from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(7), 443–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and J. Kneipp, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates-from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(7), 443–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levi, G.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, A. M.

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. E. Brus, “Ag nanocrystal junctions as the site for surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single rhodamine 6G molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11965–11971 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Millstone, J. E.

M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pieczonka, N. P. W.

N. P. W. Pieczonka and R. F. Aroca, “Single molecule analysis by surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 946–954 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, L.

M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, B.

Z. Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D. Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9463–9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, A. E.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schider, G.

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seong, N.-H.

Y. Fang, N.-H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiu, J. Y.

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, Y.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D. Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9463–9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using metallic nanostructures,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 17(8-9), 557–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wei, K. H.

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wu, D. Y.

Z. Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D. Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9463–9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yonzon, C. R.

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Young, M. A.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and J. Kneipp, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates-from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells,” Acc. Chem. Res. 39(7), 443–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

C. R. Yonzon, C. L. Haynes, X. Zhang, J. T. Walsh, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: gold surfaces, 10-Day stability, and improved accuracy,” Anal. Chem. 76, 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Felidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (3)

M. J. Banholzer, J. E. Millstone, L. Qin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Rationally designed nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 885–897 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. W. Pieczonka and R. F. Aroca, “Single molecule analysis by surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 946–954 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bailo and V. Deckert, “Tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 921–930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis (1)

C. W. Kuo, K. H. Wei, C. H. Lin, J. Y. Shiu, and P. Chen, “Nanofluidic system for the studies of single DNA molecules,” Electrophoresis 29(14), 2931–2938 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (4)

Z. Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D. Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: from noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9463–9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Michaels, J. Jiang, and L. E. Brus, “Ag nanocrystal junctions as the site for surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single rhodamine 6G molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11965–11971 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Dick, A. D. McFarland, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) electrodes for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): improvements in surface nanostructure stability and suppression of irreversible loss,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(4), 853–860 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(22), 11279–11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, “Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2262–2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, N.-H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, “Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 321(5887), 388–392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Analyt. Chem. (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using metallic nanostructures,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 17(8-9), 557–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Raman spectra of benzenethiol molecules from neat liquid and AgFON surface. Black spectrum is the Raman spectrum from neat benzenethiol liquid. Exposure time 100 s. Red line is an averaged Raman spectrum on the AgFON substrate over 10 × 10 μm area (150×150 pixel). Exposure time: 0.2 s. A typical Raman spectrum on the hot site with an enchantment factor of 108 is depicted in blue line. Exposure time 0.2 s. (b) SERS image of the 1575 cm-1 peak for benzenthiol from the 300 nm AgFON substrate. Bar: 2 μm. (c) AFM image of the AgFON substrate. Bar: 2 μm. (d) Distribution of the measured SERS enhancement factor log(∣E∣4).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (c) Confocal Raman images of benzenethiol on the silver film over isolated nanospheres (460 nm) and a line of close-contacted nanospheres. (b), (d) SEM images of the nanosphere in the same area. Scale bar 500 nm in (a) and 1 μm in (b)(c)(d). (e), (f) Cross-sectional SEM image of silver film over nanospheres. Bar: 500 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The measured SERS intensity for the 1575 cm-1 peak on the 460 nm AgFON substrates as a function of film thickness.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The calculated SERS enhancement distribution log(∣E∣4) around the nanosphere for different polarizations. (a) The simulated model of the single nanosphere. (b) TE mode. (c) TM mode and (d) Enlarged view of field at the edge.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a), (c) The SERS images of the 1575 cm-1 peak for benzenethiol on the 300 nm and 360 nm size trimmed nanoparticle array substrates, respectively. (b), (d) the SEM images of the nanoparticle array substrates. Bar: 2 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Distribution of the enhancement factors for benzenethiol molecules on the 300 nm AgFON substrate.

Metrics