Abstract

The human eye has ethnic difference, the existing typical eye models are based on western eyes. A generic eye model based on Chinese population is presented for the first time. The statistical analyzed ocular parameters based on measured data are used for the initial generic eye model, and the wavefront aberration data obtained at two different pupil diameters are used for reproduction by optimizing the initial generic eye model. The differences and similarities between Chinese generic eye model and western eye models are given. The Chinese generic eye model provides a suitable model for the related further researches and applications on Chinese eye.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).

2008

2007

2006

R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, "On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models," Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371-381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman, V.A.D.P. Sicam and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea," Vision Res. 46, 993-1001 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005

H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

YJ Liu, ZL Fang and ZQ Wang. "A new model of human eye considering tear film and the optical characters," Journal of Optoelectronics · Laser 16, 488-491 (2005) (in Chinese).

YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, "An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens," Optik 116, 241-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, "Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman, R. G. L. van der Heijde and H. A. Weeber, "Comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment--a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1216-1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Koretz, S. A. Strenk and L. M. Strenk, "Reply to comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment: a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1219-1220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Smith, "The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance," Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

E. O. Curatu, G. H. Pettit and J. A. Campin, "Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements," Proc. SPIE 4611, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

QL Zhao, ZQ Wang and CS Zhang, "The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye," Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409-1412 (2002) (in Chinese).

2001

M. Dubbelman and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox," Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. P. Masajada, "Numerical study of the influence of the shell structure of the crystalline lens on the refractive properties of the human eye," Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 19, 41-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones and R. Brancato, "Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 10-21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, "Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881-1891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

G. Smith, "Schematic eyes: history, description and applications," Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176-189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1991

G. Smith, "The optical modelling of the human lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 11, 359-369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider and P. A. Goeckner, "Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,’’Vision Res. 29, 1685-1692(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1983

A. C. Kooijman, "Light distribution on the retina of a wide-angle theoretical eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1544-1550 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

1973

N. Brown, "The change in shape and internal form of the lens of the eye on accommodation," Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441-459 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

Artal, P.

Atchison, D. A.

Bescos, J.

Bille, J. F.

Blaker, J. W.

Brancato, R.

P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones and R. Brancato, "Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 10-21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, N.

Brown, N.

N. Brown, "The change in shape and internal form of the lens of the eye on accommodation," Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441-459 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, C.

Campin, J. A.

E. O. Curatu, G. H. Pettit and J. A. Campin, "Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements," Proc. SPIE 4611, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carones, F.

P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones and R. Brancato, "Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 10-21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).

Curatu, E. O.

E. O. Curatu, G. H. Pettit and J. A. Campin, "Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements," Proc. SPIE 4611, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dubbelman, M.

M. Dubbelman, V.A.D.P. Sicam and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea," Vision Res. 46, 993-1001 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, R. G. L. van der Heijde and H. A. Weeber, "Comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment--a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1216-1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox," Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Escudero-Sanz, I.

Fang, ZL

HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu and H Zhang, "Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109-114 (2007) (in Chinese).

YJ Liu, ZL Fang and ZQ Wang. "A new model of human eye considering tear film and the optical characters," Journal of Optoelectronics · Laser 16, 488-491 (2005) (in Chinese).

Gao, ZS

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).

Gobbi, P. G.

P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones and R. Brancato, "Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 10-21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goeckner, P. A.

J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider and P. A. Goeckner, "Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,’’Vision Res. 29, 1685-1692(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Goncharov, A. V.

Gonzalez, L.

R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, "On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models," Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371-381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, B.

Guo, H. Q.

H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-matamoros, J. L.

R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, "On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models," Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371-381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, P. L.

J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider and P. A. Goeckner, "Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,’’Vision Res. 29, 1685-1692(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, MM

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).

Kooijman, A. C.

A. C. Kooijman, "Light distribution on the retina of a wide-angle theoretical eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1544-1550 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koretz, J. F.

J. F. Koretz, S. A. Strenk and L. M. Strenk, "Reply to comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment: a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1219-1220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider and P. A. Goeckner, "Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,’’Vision Res. 29, 1685-1692(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, XH

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).

Liang, J.

Liou, H.

Liu, YJ

HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu and H Zhang, "Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109-114 (2007) (in Chinese).

YJ Liu, ZL Fang and ZQ Wang. "A new model of human eye considering tear film and the optical characters," Journal of Optoelectronics · Laser 16, 488-491 (2005) (in Chinese).

YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, "An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens," Optik 116, 241-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lotmar, W.

Marcos, S.

Masajada, A. P.

A. P. Masajada, "Numerical study of the influence of the shell structure of the crystalline lens on the refractive properties of the human eye," Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 19, 41-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mooren, M.

Mu, GG

YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, "An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens," Optik 116, 241-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

Neider, M. W.

J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider and P. A. Goeckner, "Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,’’Vision Res. 29, 1685-1692(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norrby, S.

Nowakowski, M.

Pettit, G. H.

E. O. Curatu, G. H. Pettit and J. A. Campin, "Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements," Proc. SPIE 4611, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P.

Qu, XM

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).

Rosales, P.

Santamaria, J.

Sheehanb, M. T.

Sicam, V.A.D.P.

M. Dubbelman, V.A.D.P. Sicam and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea," Vision Res. 46, 993-1001 (2006).
[PubMed]

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, "Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Smith, "The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance," Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, "Schematic eyes: history, description and applications," Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176-189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Smith, "The optical modelling of the human lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 11, 359-369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Song, LP

YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, "An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens," Optik 116, 241-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strenk, L. M.

Strenk, S. A.

Van der Heijde, G.L.

M. Dubbelman, V.A.D.P. Sicam and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea," Vision Res. 46, 993-1001 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. Dubbelman and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox," Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Heijde, R. G. L.

Wang, Y.

H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Q.

H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, ZQ

YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, "An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens," Optik 116, 241-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

YJ Liu, ZL Fang and ZQ Wang. "A new model of human eye considering tear film and the optical characters," Journal of Optoelectronics · Laser 16, 488-491 (2005) (in Chinese).

QL Zhao, ZQ Wang and CS Zhang, "The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye," Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409-1412 (2002) (in Chinese).

Weeber, H. A.

Zhang, CS

QL Zhao, ZQ Wang and CS Zhang, "The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye," Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409-1412 (2002) (in Chinese).

Zhang, H

HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu and H Zhang, "Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109-114 (2007) (in Chinese).

Zhao, Q. L.

H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, QL

QL Zhao, ZQ Wang and CS Zhang, "The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye," Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409-1412 (2002) (in Chinese).

Zhu, HF

HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu and H Zhang, "Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109-114 (2007) (in Chinese).

Acta Photonica Sinica

QL Zhao, ZQ Wang and CS Zhang, "The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye," Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409-1412 (2002) (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt.

Clin. Exp. Optom.

G. Smith, "Schematic eyes: history, description and applications," Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176-189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Smith, "The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance," Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3-18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res.

N. Brown, "The change in shape and internal form of the lens of the eye on accommodation," Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441-459 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Opt.

HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu and H Zhang, "Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109-114 (2007) (in Chinese).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

R. Navarro, J. Santamaria and J. Bescos, "Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273-1281 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, "Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman, R. G. L. van der Heijde and H. A. Weeber, "Comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment--a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1216-1218 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Koretz, S. A. Strenk and L. M. Strenk, "Reply to comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment: a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1219-1220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, "Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157-2174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal and R. Navarro, "Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246-249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

the flow diagram of reverse building Chinese generic eye model

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

the Q-Q plots of the anterior corneal surface steep curvature radius Rx with normality test

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

the Q-Q plots of the anterior corneal surface flat curvature radius Ry with normality test

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

the Normal distribution histogram of the anterior corneal surface steep curvature radius Rx

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

the Normal distribution histogram of the anterior corneal surface flat curvature radius Ry

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

the average values of Zernike polynomials coefficients at 3mm pupil diameter

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

the average values of Zernike polynomials coefficients at 6mm pupil diameter

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

the contrast curves of fitting new GRIN with others in axial direction

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

the contrast curves of fitting new GRIN with others in radial direction

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

the contrast curves of the fitting Conrady equations for ocular media with various sources of chromatic dispersion data in the visible spectrum

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

the measured wavefront aberrations with opposite signs (a) & (b) and predicted wavefront aberrations obtained by the generic eye model (c) & (d) at pupil diameter of 3mm (left) and 6mm (right)

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

the schematic plots of Chinese generic eye model at the pupil diameter of 3mm (a) and 6mm (b)

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

the MTF of Chinese generic eye model compared with experimental result and two western eye models

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1. the measurement apparatuses used

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Table 2. the mean values and 95% confidence intervals of measured parameters

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Table 3. Conrady equations fitted to various sources of chromatic dispersion data [21, 1214]

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Table 4. some averages of various sources [1214,21] in the visible spectrum

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Table 5. Conrady equations fitted to averages of various sources [1214,21] in the visible spectrum

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Table 6. the structural parameters of Chinese generic eye model

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Table 7. the surface performance comparison of main refractive elements in Chinese generic eye model with existing western eye models

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x2+y2+(1+k)z22Rz=0
z=cxx2+cyy21+1(1+kx)cx2x2(1+ky)cy2y2
n(r,z)=n0(z)+n1(z)r2+n2(z)r4+n3(z)r6+
n(r,z)=1.4060.0062685(z1.7)2+0.0003834(z1.7)3
[0.00052375+0.00005735(z1.7)+0.00027875(z1.7)2]r20.000066716r4
n(r,z)=1.387+0.014z0.00384z20.0012r2
n(r,z)={1.368+0.049057z0.015427z20.001978r20<z1.591.407+0.0(z1.59)0.006605(z1.59)20.001978r21.59<z4.02
n(r,z)=1.3620.0021490r20.0000106r4
+0.049467z0.015958z2+0.0001715z3+0.000141 z4
n(r,z)=1.379+0.035118z0.012214z2+0.00076664z30.0018073r2
n(λ)=A+Bλ2+Cλ4+Dλ6+
n(λ)=n0+Aλ+Bλ3.5
n(λ)cornea=1.3625+6.6460×103λ+3.5752×104λ3.5
n(λ)aqueous=1.3229+6.7866×103λ+3.5976×104λ3.5
n(λ)lens=1.4050+6.3200×103λ+6.4981×104λ3.5
n(λ)vitreous=1.3222+6.6518×103λ+3.4545×104λ3.5

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