Abstract

We develop a high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system based on a custom-built spectrometer and non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT) to realize minimized depth dependent sensitivity fall-off. After precise spectral calibration of the spectrometer, NDFT of the acquired spectral data is adopted for image reconstruction. The spectrometer is able to measure a wavelength range of about 138nm with a spectral resolution of 0.0674nm at central wavelength of 835nm, corresponding to an axial imaging range of 2.56mm in air. Zemax simulations and sensitivity fall-off measurements under two alignment states of the spectrometer are given. Both theoretical simulations and experiments are done to study the depth dependent sensitivity of the developed system based on NDFT in contrast to those based on conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) with and without interpolation. In vivo imaging on human finger from volunteer is conducted at A-scan rate of 29 kHz and reconstruction is done based on different methods. The comparing results confirm that reconstruction method based on NDFT indeed improves sensitivity especially at large depth while maintaining the coherence-function-limited depth resolution.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Park, C. Mark, P. B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3μm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-3931 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Wang, Z. Yuan, H. Wang, and Y. Pan, “Increasing the imaging depth of spectral-domain OCT by using interpixel shift technique,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7014–7023 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7014 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Hu, Y. Pan, and A. M. Rollins, “Analytical model of spectrometer-based two-beam spectral interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(35), 8499–8505 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2156 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O1–6 (2007).
  12. Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-26-3598 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. M. Zwartjes and M. D. Sacchi, “Fourier reconstruction of nonuniformly sampled, aliased seismic data,” Geophysics 72(1), V21–V32 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(12), 3231–3239 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

R. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(12), 3231–3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Z. Yuan, H. Wang, and Y. Pan, “Increasing the imaging depth of spectral-domain OCT by using interpixel shift technique,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7014–7023 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7014 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. Park, C. Mark, P. B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3μm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2156 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Cense, P. B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hu, Z.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Kaluzny, J. J.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z. H.

R. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(12), 3231–3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mark, C.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Pan, Y.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Sacchi, M. D.

P. M. Zwartjes and M. D. Sacchi, “Fourier reconstruction of nonuniformly sampled, aliased seismic data,” Geophysics 72(1), V21–V32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowski, M.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Wang, H.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(12), 3231–3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wojtkowski, M.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

Yun, S.

Yun, S.-H.

Zwartjes, P. M.

P. M. Zwartjes and M. D. Sacchi, “Fourier reconstruction of nonuniformly sampled, aliased seismic data,” Geophysics 72(1), V21–V32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophysics

P. M. Zwartjes and M. D. Sacchi, “Fourier reconstruction of nonuniformly sampled, aliased seismic data,” Geophysics 72(1), V21–V32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 7457–7463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, “Coherent noise free ophthalmic imaging by Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2006–2011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-26-3598 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-367 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-10-2156 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, C. Mark, P. B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3μm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-3931 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Z. Yuan, H. Wang, and Y. Pan, “Increasing the imaging depth of spectral-domain OCT by using interpixel shift technique,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7014–7023 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7014 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “A practical approach to eliminate autocorrelation artefacts for volume-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(12), 3231–3239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. Hofer, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O1–6 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Numerical simulations on depth dependent sensitivity fall-off based on different reconstuction methods

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the established SD-OCT system, where OI is the optical isolator, FC is the 3dB fiber coupler, PC is the polarization controller, NDF is the neutral density filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the costom-built spectrometer (a) and its Zemax simulation of ray tracing trajectories of two edge wavelenghs corresponding to 3dB bandwidth of the source (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The calibration curve of wavelength distribution on the CCD array

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured depth dependent sensitivity fall-off (a and b) and Zemax simulation of spot diagrams for typical spectral components on CCD plane (c and d) corresponding to CCD located at focused position and defocused position in the spectrometer, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Recorded spectral interferogram of a mirror as the sample at the depth of 450 μm and corresponding (b) PSFs reconstructed using NDFT method (blue line), DFT method with (red) and without interpolation (black).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reconstructed depth dependent sensitivity fall-off based on three methods and the theoretical expected sensitivity fall-off.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

In vivo OCT images on human finger from volunteer based on (a) NDFT method, (b) DFT with interpolation method, and (c) DFT without interpolation method. Zero OPD: zero optical-path difference, SC: stratum corneum, SD: sweat gland duct, DEJ: dermis-epidermis junction

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(k)=S(k)[Rr+nRn+2RrnRncos(2k(zrzn))+2nmnRnRmcos(2k(znzm))]
FT1[I(k)]=Γ(z){Rrδ(0)+nRnδ(0)+2RrnRnδ(z±zrn)+2nmnRnRmδ(z±znm)}
A(zm)=i=0N1I(ki)ej2πΔKkim,m=0,1,...N1
A=DI
A=[A(z0)A(z1)A(zN1)]
I=[I[k0]I[k1]I[kN1]]
D=[111p01p11pN11p02p12pN12p0(N1)p1(N1)pN1(N1)]
pn=exp(j2πΔKki),i=0,1,N1
RDFT(z)=sin(pRz)pRzexp(a2R2z24ln2)
RInterpolation(z)=RDFT(z)PInterpolation(δk,z)
RNDFT(z)=RDFT(z)PNDFT(z)
PNDFT(z)=1ΔK|i=0N1ej2πΔKkiz|

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