Abstract

Microfluidic channels and Bragg Grating Waveguides (BGWs) were simultaneously fabricated inside fused silica glass by means of femtosecond laser exposure followed by chemical etching. Evanescent field penetration of the waveguide mode into the parallel microfluidic channel induced Bragg resonant wavelength shifts to enable refractive index characterization of the fluidic medium in the 1 to 1.452 range. Laser exposure was optimized to fabricate devices with optically smooth channel walls and narrow Bragg resonances for high sensing response at 1560 nm wavelength. Reference gratings were also employed in the optical circuit for temperature and strain compensation. These devices open new directions for optical sensing in three-dimensional optofluidic and reactor microsystems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, "Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching," Opt. Express 17, 8685-8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

J. C. Gates, C. H. Holmes, F. R. M. Adikan, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, "New geometry for planar UV written refractive index sensors," Proc. SPIE 6585, 65850O (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2559-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes - Part I: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, "Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-chip device manufacture," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, "Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, "Fabrication of high-aspect ratio micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Opt. Express 12, 2120-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, H. Klank, and J. P. Kutter, "Recent developments in detection for microfluidic systems," Electrophoresis 25, 3498-3512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Karlsson, "SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas," Journal of Molecular Recognition 17, 151-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, J. El-Ali, A. Wolff, and J. P. Kutter, "Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 4072-4079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, "Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1144-1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

1999 (1)

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, "A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter," Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 1109-1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adikan, F. R. M.

J. C. Gates, C. H. Holmes, F. R. M. Adikan, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, "New geometry for planar UV written refractive index sensors," Proc. SPIE 6585, 65850O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. Ho, S. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, M5S 3G4 Toronto, Ontario, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross-section patternable glass micro-channels."

Applegate, R. W.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A. Y.

Arnold, F. H.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, "A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter," Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 1109-1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bado, P.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, "Fabrication of high-aspect ratio micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Opt. Express 12, 2120-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellini, N.

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

Cavallotti, P. L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, "Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching," Opt. Express 17, 8685-8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, "Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-chip device manufacture," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, "Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1144-1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cordovez, B.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Dugan, M. A.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eaton, S.

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ho, S. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, M5S 3G4 Toronto, Ontario, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross-section patternable glass micro-channels."

Eaton, S. M.

Eijkel, J. C. T.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Ali, J.

Erickson, D.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays," Opt. Express 16, 1623-1631 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabricius, N.

Frazão, O.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, A. Y.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, "A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter," Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 1109-1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García, J.

Gates, J. C.

J. C. Gates, C. H. Holmes, F. R. M. Adikan, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, "New geometry for planar UV written refractive index sensors," Proc. SPIE 6585, 65850O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

J. C. Gates, C. H. Holmes, F. R. M. Adikan, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, "New geometry for planar UV written refractive index sensors," Proc. SPIE 6585, 65850O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

H. Zhang, S. Ho, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Three-dimensional optical sensing network written in fused silica glass with femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 16, 14015-14023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2559-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ho, S. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, M5S 3G4 Toronto, Ontario, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross-section patternable glass micro-channels."

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiromatsu, K.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.

H. Zhang, S. Ho, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, "Three-dimensional optical sensing network written in fused silica glass with femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 16, 14015-14023 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ho, S. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, M5S 3G4 Toronto, Ontario, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross-section patternable glass micro-channels."

Hollenbach, U.

Holmes, C. H.

J. C. Gates, C. H. Holmes, F. R. M. Adikan, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, "New geometry for planar UV written refractive index sensors," Proc. SPIE 6585, 65850O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, J.

K. B. Mogensen, N. J. Petersen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices," Electrophoresis 22, 3930-3938 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, D. J.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes - Part I: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

Jeon, H.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson, "SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas," Journal of Molecular Recognition 17, 151-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawachi, M.

Kazansky, P.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klank, H.

K. B. Mogensen, H. Klank, and J. P. Kutter, "Recent developments in detection for microfluidic systems," Electrophoresis 25, 3498-3512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kutter, J. P.

K. B. Mogensen, H. Klank, and J. P. Kutter, "Recent developments in detection for microfluidic systems," Electrophoresis 25, 3498-3512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, J. El-Ali, A. Wolff, and J. P. Kutter, "Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 4072-4079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, N. J. Petersen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices," Electrophoresis 22, 3930-3938 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, Y. C.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Luff, B. J.

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, S.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays," Opt. Express 16, 1623-1631 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, A.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marr, D. W. M.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez Vazquez, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes - Part I: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, "Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-chip device manufacture," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, "Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1144-1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Mogensen, K. B.

K. B. Mogensen, H. Klank, and J. P. Kutter, "Recent developments in detection for microfluidic systems," Electrophoresis 25, 3498-3512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, J. El-Ali, A. Wolff, and J. P. Kutter, "Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems," Appl. Opt. 42, 4072-4079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, N. J. Petersen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices," Electrophoresis 22, 3930-3938 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, M. L.

S. Ho, S. Eaton, M. L. Ng, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, M5S 3G4 Toronto, Ontario, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross-section patternable glass micro-channels."

Nishii, J.

Oakey, J.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osellame, R.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, "Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching," Opt. Express 17, 8685-8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, D. A.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, N. J.

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, N. J. Petersen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices," Electrophoresis 22, 3930-3938 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piehler, J.

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, "A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter," Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 1109-1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, "Shape control of microchannels fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser irradiation and chemical etching," Opt. Express 17, 8685-8695 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

Scherer, A.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, "A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter," Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 1109-1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, L.

Shihoyama, K.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. G. R.

J. C. Gates, C. H. Holmes, F. R. M. Adikan, C. B. E. Gawith, and P. G. R. Smith, "New geometry for planar UV written refractive index sensors," Proc. SPIE 6585, 65850O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spence, C.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, "A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter," Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 1109-1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, "Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-chip device manufacture," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, "Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1144-1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 1867-1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyoda, K.

Vestad, T.

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

Watanabe, M.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wolff, A.

Yang, A. H. J.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. B. Mogensen, Y. C. Kwok, J. C. T. Eijkel, N. J. Petersen, A. Manz, and J. P. Kutter, "A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation," Anal. Chem. 75, 4931-4936 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (2)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, "Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-chip device manufacture," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, "Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (2)

K. B. Mogensen, N. J. Petersen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices," Electrophoresis 22, 3930-3938 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Mogensen, H. Klank, and J. P. Kutter, "Recent developments in detection for microfluidic systems," Electrophoresis 25, 3498-3512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes - Part I: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High Sensitivity Evanescent Field Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Journal of Molecular Recognition (1)

R. Karlsson, "SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas," Journal of Molecular Recognition 17, 151-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (2)

R. W. ApplegateJr., J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, "Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping," Lab Chip 6, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Lab Chip 9, 311-318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microfluidics and Nanofluidics (1)

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, "Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 4, 33-52 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for femtosecond laser fabrication of Bragg grating waveguides and microfluidic channels.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of microfluidic sensor geometries: straight BGW single channel (a), S-bend BGW single channel (b), and straight BGW double channel (c). Microscope images recorded before (top pictures in (d) and (e)) and after (bottom pictures in (d) and (e)) HF etching for the straight BGW single channel (d) and the straight BGW double channel (e) sensor designs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bragg grating reflection spectra for (a) the 1560 nm sensing grating and (b) the 1550 nm reference grating, for microchannels filled with air (nD =1.000) and index matching oil (nD =1.444). The sensor geometry of Fig. 2(c) was used.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bragg resonance values for the sensing grating recorded as a function of the refractive index of the solvents filling the microchannels, for each of the three device configurations presented in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Refractive index sensitivity versus the refractive index of the solvents filling the microchannels, for each of the three device configurations presented in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental BGW insertion losses plotted against BGW-to-microchannel distance for a channel filled with air (nD =1.000), distilled white vinegar (nD =1.333), and 1.442 index matching oil. The sensor geometry of Fig. 2(a) was used.

Equations (2)

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λB=2neffΛ=2neffv/f
ΔλB/λB=Δ T (α+ζ)

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