Abstract

We present a portable system for non-invasive, simultaneous sensing of molecular oxygen (O2) and water vapor (H2O) in the human paranasal cavities. The system is based on high-resolution tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) and digital wavelength modulation spectroscopy (dWMS). Since optical interference and non-ideal tuning of the diode lasers render signal processing complex, we focus on Fourier analysis of dWMS signals and procedures for removal of background signals. Clinical data are presented, and exhibit a significant improvement in signal-to-noise with respect to earlier work. The in situ detection limit, in terms of absorption fraction, is about 5×10-5 for oxygen and 5×10-4 for water vapor, but varies between patients due to differences in light attenuation. In addition, we discuss the use of water vapor as a reference in quantification of in situ oxygen concentration in detail. In particular, light propagation aspects are investigated by employing photon time-of-flight spectroscopy.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  6. J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
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  22. E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
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  24. R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, "Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS," Proc. SPIE 7142, 714202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Galbacs, "A review of applications and experimental improvements related to diode laser atomic spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 259-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

1988

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Buck, "New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor," J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527-1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alerstam, E.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bachert, C.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buck, A.

A. Buck, "New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor," J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527-1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cassel-Engquist, M.

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, R.

R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fernholz, T.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fokkens, W.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).
[PubMed]

Folestad, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galbacs, G.

G. Galbacs, "A review of applications and experimental improvements related to diode laser atomic spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 259-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hormann, K.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jæger, T.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, J.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaspersen, P.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lewander, M.

Lindberg, Å.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linnerud, I.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luckhaupt, H.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lund, V.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).
[PubMed]

Martin, P.

P. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mosges, R.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mullol, J.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Persson, L.

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rasp, G.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riechelmann, H.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rippe, L.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudack, C.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sjöholm, M.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stuck, B. A.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, "Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS," Proc. SPIE 7142, 714202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, H.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allergy

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.

G. Galbacs, "A review of applications and experimental improvements related to diode laser atomic spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 259-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

P. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

A. Buck, "New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor," J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527-1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophoton.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, "Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS," Proc. SPIE 7142, 714202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rhinol. Suppl.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).
[PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A

R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Svensson, "Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of spectroscopy in the photon migration regime," PhD Thesis, Lund University (2008), www.atomic.physics.lu.se/biophotonics/publications/phd_theses.

"Application Note 1040: Coherent Sampling vs. Window Sampling," Tech. rep. Maxim (2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the instrumentation. A PCI board with synchronized analog outputs (AO) and analog inputs (AI) manages both laser modulation and data acquisition. In order to utilize the full dynamic range of the AO, voltage dividers (VD) are used to reduce the signal level before modulation signals reach the diode laser drivers. Simultaneous sensing of O2 and H2O is achieved by using two pigtailed DFB diode lasers operating around 760 nm and 935 nm, respectively. In order to allow separation of the two corresponding absorption signals, the two lasers are operated at different modulation frequencies, fm . The laser outputs are arranged in a dual beam configuration: one photodiode (PD) provides the reference signal, and a second records a signal carrying gas absorption information. Transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) convert and amplify the photodiode currents, and the resulting voltages are coherently sampled and averaged.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Raw data exemplified by a measurement on a 1000 mm path through ambient air. Two lasers contribute to the detected signal, and the individual contributions and their sum are shown in (left). A single-sided amplitude spectrum of the full signal (both lasers) is given in (right), showing 1–3 f WMS components due to interactions with absorption features. Note that the 1f components are dominated by residual amplitude modulation (RAM) of the diode lasers (see text for a discussion on RAM).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase-amplitude plots of sample arm v̄ nf (t)-signals originating from ambient air (free-space) measurements. In order to show the signal structure, offsets have been removed. For the fiber-based system used in the present work, large absorption is required to produce a line-type phase-amplitude plot (left column, L=100 cm pathlength through ambient air, 3×10-2 absorption fraction). In the case of low absorption, the phase plot is completely dominated by background effects (middle column, L=2 cm, 5×10-4 absorption fraction). In contrast, single beam operation without optical fibers results in line-type phase-amplitude plots even at low absorption (right column, L=2 cm, optical system as in Ref. [5] while data acquisition and laser control is managed by the system presented in this paper).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Background subtraction exemplified using clinical data (molecular oxygen in the frontal sinus). Due to the triangular modulation used for laser modulation, each scan (dataset) include two interactions with the absorption feature. Differences in laser response in up- and downwards scanning requires that the imprints are evaluated separately. Despite fairly strong absorption, the absorption imprint is heavily distorted by background signals (left column). The observed structure can, however, be explained by the model in Eq. 6. Line-type phase-amplitude plot is obtained after background subtraction (middle column), and the resulting WMS signals (right column) exhibit good signal-to-noise ratio. The absolute reference was recorded on 1000 mm path of ambient air, and cfit =0.032 thus suggest an absorption that corresponds to 32 mm in air, i.e. 9×10-4 in absorption fraction (Leq =32 mm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Investigation of system performance by measurements on series of distances of ambient air (2f signals, molecular oxygen). When using the fiber-based clinical system, the resolution is about 1 mm Leq , i.e. about 3×10-5 (average absolute deviations from the fitted line, <|ε|>). The resolution is significantly better, about 0.02 mm Leq , when the optical system is replaced with a non-collimated VCSEL and a single large-area photodiode (this system is described and used in Refs. [5, 7]). For this series, note the initial pathlength offset of about 5 mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

CT images of the maxillary (a–b) and frontal sinuses (c–d). Black areas surrounded by white borders (bone) correspond to air filled cavities. Each division on the scale corresponds to 1 cm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

1–5 f WMS signals from measurements on the left frontal sinus of a patient (black) together with fitted absolute reference data (red). CT images of this frontal sinus is found in Fig. 6. The detected power was 9 µW for 760 nm and 1 µW for 935 nm (transimpedance amplification was set to 106). The slightly lower Leq for water vapor is typical, and is investigated in Sect. 3.3. Note the weak signal strength at higher harmonics, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and causing increased uncertainty in Leq estimation. Note also that the water absorption is about ten times stronger than the oxygen absorption.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

1–5 f WMS signals from measurements on the left maxillary sinus of a patient (black) together with fitted absolute reference data (red). CT images of this maxillary sinus is found in Fig. 6. The detected power was 2.7 µW for 760 nm and 0.15 µW for 935 nm (transimpedance amplification was set to 106).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Photon time-of-flight distributions obtained from measurements on the maxillary sinuses. A measurement of the instrumental response function (dashed) provides the origin for the absolute time scale.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Photon pathlengths and estimations of average absorption coefficients, as obtained from PTOFS. Mean pathlengths are calculated from mean TOF, assuming a refractive index of 1.4. For the measurements on the maxillary sinuses of volunteer 2, low light transmission prevented proper analysis of absorption coefficient.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U(ω)=𝓕 {u(t)}
Unf(ω)=2×U(ω)×exp((ωn×ωmδω)8)
Vnf(ω)=Unf(ω+n·ωm),
vnf*(t)=𝓕1{Vnf(ω)}.
vˉnf*(t)=vnf*(t)mean(vnf*(t))k(t)×mean(v1f*(t)).
vˉs*(t)p*(t)+q*(t)×vˉr*(t)+c×vˉa.r.*(tt0).
wˉ*(t)=vˉs*(t)pfit*(t)+qfit*(t)×vˉr*(t)
WMSnf(t)=Real {(wˉnf*(t)mean(wˉnf*(t)))×exp(iβn)}
Leq=cfit×La.r.
p=6.032×103exp(17.502T240.97+T)

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