Abstract

There has been recently a renewed interest in using Autofluorescence imaging (AF) of NADH and flavoproteins (Fp) to map brain activity in cortical areas. The recording of these cellular signals provides complementary information to intrinsic optical imaging based on hemodynamic changes. However, which of NADH or Fp is the best candidate for AF functional imaging is not established, and the temporal profile of AF signals is not fully understood. To bring new theoretical insights into these questions, Monte Carlo simulations of AF signals were carried out in realistic models of the rat somatosensory cortex and olfactory bulb. We show that AF signals depend on the structural and physiological features of the brain area considered and are sensitive to changes in blood flow and volume induced by sensory activation. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of both NADH-AF and Fp-AF in the olfactory bulb.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Bonhoeffer and GrinvaldA , "Optical Imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology" in Brain mapping; the methods," A. W. Toga and J.C. Mazziotta, Eds. (Academic Press, Los Angeles, CA, 1996).
  2. B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Chance, "The kinetics of flavoprotein and pyridine nucleotide oxidation in cardiac mitochondria in the presence of calcium," FEBS Lett. 26, 315-9 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. E. Anderson and F. B. Meyer, "In vivo fluorescent imaging of NADH redox state in brain," Methods Enzymol. 352, 482-94 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Mayevsky and G. G. Rogatsky, "Mitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies," Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 292, C615-40 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Gurden, N. Uchida, and et Z. F. Mainen, "Sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the olfactory bulb are coupled to glutamate release and uptake," Neuron 52, 335-45 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. W. Shuttleworth, A. M. Brennan, and et J. A. Connor, "NAD(P)H fluorescence imaging of postsynaptic neuronal activation in murine hippocampal slices," J Neurosci. 23, 3196-208 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  17. S. A. Prahl, "Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin," http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html
  18. C. C. H. Petersen, "The barrel cortex--integrating molecular, cellular and systems physiology," Pflugers Arch. 447, 126-34 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. M. Shepherd, "Synaptic organization of the mammalian olfactory bulb," Physiol. Rev. 52, 864-917 (1972).
    [PubMed]
  21. E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Jones, J. Berwick, and et J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, "A Monte Carlo Model of Light Propagation in Tissue," Proc. SPIE IS 5, 102-11(1989).
  31. L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and et L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. F. Agner, "Pseudo random number generator;" http://www.agner.org/random/mother.
  33. B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  34. R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "Modulation of the amplitude of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic stimulation," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3233-43 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function," J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 26, 1389-406 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
    [PubMed]
  39. F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
    [PubMed]
  40. F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. B. A. Johnson and M. Leon, "Spatial distribution of [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb following early odor reference learning," J Comp Neurol. 37, 6557-66. (1996)
  42. O. Wolfbeis, "Fluorescence of organic natural products," in Molecular Luminescence Spectroscopy. Part 1: Methods and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, ed. (S. G. Schulman, 1985), pp. 167-370.
  43. A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. M. Jones, J. Berwick, and J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S.A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex," Neuroimage 37Suppl 1, S27-36 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mayevsky and G. G. Rogatsky, "Mitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies," Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 292, C615-40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "Modulation of the amplitude of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic stimulation," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3233-43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash, J. D. Biag, S.A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex," Neuroimage 37Suppl 1, S27-36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function," J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 26, 1389-406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gurden, N. Uchida, and et Z. F. Mainen, "Sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the olfactory bulb are coupled to glutamate release and uptake," Neuron 52, 335-45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Shuttleworth, A. M. Brennan, and et J. A. Connor, "NAD(P)H fluorescence imaging of postsynaptic neuronal activation in murine hippocampal slices," J Neurosci. 23, 3196-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

C. C. H. Petersen, "The barrel cortex--integrating molecular, cellular and systems physiology," Pflugers Arch. 447, 126-34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and et J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Anderson and F. B. Meyer, "In vivo fluorescent imaging of NADH redox state in brain," Methods Enzymol. 352, 482-94 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

B. A. Johnson and M. Leon, "Spatial distribution of [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb following early odor reference learning," J Comp Neurol. 37, 6557-66. (1996)

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and et L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

G. M. Shepherd, "Synaptic organization of the mammalian olfactory bulb," Physiol. Rev. 52, 864-917 (1972).
[PubMed]

B. Chance, "The kinetics of flavoprotein and pyridine nucleotide oxidation in cardiac mitochondria in the presence of calcium," FEBS Lett. 26, 315-9 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
[PubMed]

1969 (1)

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

1962 (1)

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albeanu, D. F.

G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andermann, M. L.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. E.

R. E. Anderson and F. B. Meyer, "In vivo fluorescent imaging of NADH redox state in brain," Methods Enzymol. 352, 482-94 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Askew, S.

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audinat, E.

E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacskai, B. J.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, R. C.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berwick, J.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and et J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, M. B.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, A. M.

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "Modulation of the amplitude of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic stimulation," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3233-43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function," J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 26, 1389-406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Shuttleworth, A. M. Brennan, and et J. A. Connor, "NAD(P)H fluorescence imaging of postsynaptic neuronal activation in murine hippocampal slices," J Neurosci. 23, 3196-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bücher, T.

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

Buck, A.

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, C.

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaigneau, E.

E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

B. Chance, "The kinetics of flavoprotein and pyridine nucleotide oxidation in cardiac mitochondria in the presence of calcium," FEBS Lett. 26, 315-9 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charpak, S.

E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. R.

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coffey, P.

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, J. A.

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "Modulation of the amplitude of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic stimulation," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3233-43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function," J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 26, 1389-406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Shuttleworth, A. M. Brennan, and et J. A. Connor, "NAD(P)H fluorescence imaging of postsynaptic neuronal activation in murine hippocampal slices," J Neurosci. 23, 3196-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cox, S. B.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dale, A. M.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devor, A.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirnagl, U.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunbar, R. L.

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebner, T. J.

K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frostig, R. D.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, C. D.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, A. E.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gold, L.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greer, C. A.

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinvald, A.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurden, H.

H. Gurden, N. Uchida, and et Z. F. Mainen, "Sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the olfactory bulb are coupled to glutamate release and uptake," Neuron 52, 335-45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, M.

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henegar, M. H.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirakawa, M.

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hishida, R.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, Y.

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husson, T. R.

T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyder, F.

F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issa, N. P.

T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itshak, F.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S.L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and et L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F.

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F.F.

F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
[PubMed]

Johnson, B. A.

B. A. Johnson and M. Leon, "Spatial distribution of [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb following early odor reference learning," J Comp Neurol. 37, 6557-66. (1996)

Jones, M.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and et J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamatani, D.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaguchi, T.

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawahara, H.

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kida, I.

F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitaura, H.

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, M.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komagata, S.

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kouuchi, T.

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, G. W.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, Y.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudoh, M.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuebler, W. M.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, M.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laughlin, S. B.

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leon, M.

B. A. Johnson and M. Leon, "Spatial distribution of [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb following early odor reference learning," J Comp Neurol. 37, 6557-66. (1996)

Liang, G. E.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lieke, E.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindauer, U.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mainen, Z.F.

H. Gurden, N. Uchida, and et Z. F. Mainen, "Sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the olfactory bulb are coupled to glutamate release and uptake," Neuron 52, 335-45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallik, A. K.

T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayevsky, A.

A. Mayevsky and G. G. Rogatsky, "Mitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies," Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 292, C615-40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayhew, J.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and et J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKhann, G. M.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, F. B.

R. E. Anderson and F. B. Meyer, "In vivo fluorescent imaging of NADH redox state in brain," Methods Enzymol. 352, 482-94 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, R. A.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskalenko, Y.E.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murthy, V. N.

G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagano, O.

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakase, Y.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

Nawroth, J. C.

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Connor, M.

F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
[PubMed]

Oheim, M.

E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohshima, S.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshino, R.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

Petersen, C. C. H.

C. C. H. Petersen, "The barrel cortex--integrating molecular, cellular and systems physiology," Pflugers Arch. 447, 126-34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petzold, G.C.

G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plesnila, N.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash,

Prakash, J. D. Biag, S.A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex," Neuroimage 37Suppl 1, S27-36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putz, C.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinert, K. C.

K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinecker, M.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogatsky, G. G.

A. Mayevsky and G. G. Rogatsky, "Mitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies," Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 292, C615-40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rovainen, C. M.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Royl, G.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T. F.

G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheffold, F.

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schleinkofer, L.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schober, R.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoener, B.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, R.

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

Schulze, P. C.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarzmaier, H. J.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, G. M.

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Shepherd, "Synaptic organization of the mammalian olfactory bulb," Physiol. Rev. 52, 864-917 (1972).
[PubMed]

Shibuki, K.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shulman, R. G.

F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuttleworth, C. W.

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "Modulation of the amplitude of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic stimulation," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3233-43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function," J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 26, 1389-406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Shuttleworth, A. M. Brennan, and et J. A. Connor, "NAD(P)H fluorescence imaging of postsynaptic neuronal activation in murine hippocampal slices," J Neurosci. 23, 3196-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

Skoch, J.

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sui, J.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, S.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takao, T.

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, R.

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thurman, R.G.

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

Tohmi, M.

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukano, H.

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, N.

H. Gurden, N. Uchida, and et Z. F. Mainen, "Sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the olfactory bulb are coupled to glutamate release and uptake," Neuron 52, 335-45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulbert, I.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, F.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitale, A.

F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
[PubMed]

von Schulthess, G. K.

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vreman, H.

F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
[PubMed]

Vuksanovic, B.

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and et L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, B.

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, L.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiesel, T. N.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiezorrek, J.

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, J. R.

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

Woolsey, T. A.

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wyss, M. T.

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaruba, M. E.

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. X.

T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and et L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. (1)

A. Mayevsky and G. G. Rogatsky, "Mitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies," Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 292, C615-40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brain. Res. (1)

M. Hashimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Sato, H. Kawahara, O. Nagano, and M. Hirakawa, "Dynamic changes of NADH fluorescence images and NADH content during spreading depression in the cerebral cortex of gerbils," Brain. Res. 872, 294-300 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cereb. Cortex. (1)

T. A. Woolsey, C. M. Rovainen, S. B. Cox, M. H. Henegar, G. E. Liang, D. Liu, Y. E. Moskalenko, J. Sui, and L. Wei, "Neuronal units linked to microvascular modules in cerebral cortex: response elements for imaging the brain," Cereb. Cortex. 6, 647-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and et L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Neurosci. (2)

B. Weber, C. Burger, M. T. Wyss, G. K. von Schulthess, F. Scheffold, and A. Buck, "Optical imaging of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in the rat barrel cortex," Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2664-70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, D. Kamatani, R. Hishida, T. Takao, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, R. Tanaka, and K. Shibuki, "Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats," Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 1352-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

FEBS Lett. (1)

B. Chance, "The kinetics of flavoprotein and pyridine nucleotide oxidation in cardiac mitochondria in the presence of calcium," FEBS Lett. 26, 315-9 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Comp Neurol. (1)

B. A. Johnson and M. Leon, "Spatial distribution of [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb following early odor reference learning," J Comp Neurol. 37, 6557-66. (1996)

J Neurosci. (1)

C. W. Shuttleworth, A. M. Brennan, and et J. A. Connor, "NAD(P)H fluorescence imaging of postsynaptic neuronal activation in murine hippocampal slices," J Neurosci. 23, 3196-208 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (2)

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, "Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples. NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence signals," J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764-71 (1979).
[PubMed]

R. Scholz, R. G. Thurman, J. R. Williamson, B. Chance, and T. Bücher, "Flavin and pyridine nucleotide oxidation-reduction changes in perfused rat liver. I. Anoxia and subcellular localization of fluorescent flavoproteins," J. Biol. Chem. 244, 2317-24 (1969).
[PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. (1)

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic activity in brain slices: predominant role of mitochondrial function," J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 26, 1389-406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1)

R. C. Benson, R. A. Meyer, M.E. Zaruba, and G. M. McKhann, "Cellular autofluorescence--is it due to flavins?," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 44-8 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

F. F. Jöbsis, M. O'Connor, A. Vitale, and H. Vreman, "Intracellular redox changes in functioning cerebral cortex. I. Metabolic effects of epileptiform activity," J. Neurophysiol. 34, 735-49 (1971).
[PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, R. L. Dunbar, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 92,199-211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (3)

M. Tohmi, H. Kitaura, S. Komagata, M. Kudoh, and K. Shibuki, "Enduring critical period plasticity visualized by transcranial flavoprotein imaging in mouse primary visual cortex," J. Neurosci. 26, 11775-85 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Husson, A. K. Mallik, J. X. Zhang, and N. P. Issa, "Functional imaging of primary visual cortex using flavoprotein autofluorescence," J. Neurosci. 27, 8665-75 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Nawroth, C. A. Greer, W. R. Chen, S. B. Laughlin, and G. M. Shepherd, "An energy budget for the olfactory glomerulus," J. Neurosci. 27, 9790-800 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, and W. M. Kuebler, "Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry," J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107-17 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Res. (2)

A. M. Brennan, J. A. Connor, and et C. W. Shuttleworth, "Modulation of the amplitude of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients after synaptic stimulation," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3233-43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Reinert, W. Gao, G. Chen, and T. J. Ebner, "Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging in the cerebellar cortex in vivo," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 3221-32 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

K. Shibuki, R. Hishida, H. Murakami, M. Kudoh, T. Kawaguchi, M. Watanabe, S. Watanabe, T. Kouuchi, R. Tanaka, “Dynamic imaging of somatosensory cortical activity in the rat visualized by flavoprotein autofluorescence,” J. Physiol. 549, 919-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

R. E. Anderson and F. B. Meyer, "In vivo fluorescent imaging of NADH redox state in brain," Methods Enzymol. 352, 482-94 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Nature 324, 361-4 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (5)

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash, J. D. Biag, S.A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex," Neuroimage 37Suppl 1, S27-36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation," Neuroimage 35, 89-104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, and et J. Mayhew, "Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex," Neuroimage 15, 474-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mayhew, Y. Zheng, Y. Hou, B. Vuksanovic, J. Berwick, S. Askew, and P. Coffey, "Spectroscopic analysis of changes in remitted illumination: the response to increased neural activity in brain," Neuroimage 10, 304-26 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (3)

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale1 "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-9 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gurden, N. Uchida, and et Z. F. Mainen, "Sensory-evoked intrinsic optical signals in the olfactory bulb are coupled to glutamate release and uptake," Neuron 52, 335-45 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Petzold, D. F. Albeanu, T. F. Sato, V. N. Murthy, "Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways," Neuron 58, 897-910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Res. (1)

Y. Kubota, D. Kamatani, H. Tsukano, S. Ohshima, K. Takahashi, R. Hishida, M. Kudoh, S. Takahashi, and K. Shibuki, "Transcranial photo-inactivation of neural activities in the mouse auditory cortex," Neurosci. Res. 60, 422-30 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflugers Arch. (1)

C. C. H. Petersen, "The barrel cortex--integrating molecular, cellular and systems physiology," Pflugers Arch. 447, 126-34 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

M. Kohl, U. Lindauer, G. Royl, M. Kuhl, L. Gold, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl., "Physical model for the spectroscopic analysis of cortical intrinsic optical signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3749-64 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

G. M. Shepherd, "Synaptic organization of the mammalian olfactory bulb," Physiol. Rev. 52, 864-917 (1972).
[PubMed]

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1)

F. Xu, I. Kida, F. Hyder, and R. G. Shulman, "Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97,10601-6. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

E. Chaigneau, M. Oheim, E. Audinat, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon imaging of capillary blood flow in olfactory bulb glomeruli," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 13081-6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jöbsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

T. Bonhoeffer and GrinvaldA , "Optical Imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology" in Brain mapping; the methods," A. W. Toga and J.C. Mazziotta, Eds. (Academic Press, Los Angeles, CA, 1996).

S. A. Prahl, "Optical Absorption of Hemoglobin," http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html

F. Agner, "Pseudo random number generator;" http://www.agner.org/random/mother.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, "A Monte Carlo Model of Light Propagation in Tissue," Proc. SPIE IS 5, 102-11(1989).

O. Wolfbeis, "Fluorescence of organic natural products," in Molecular Luminescence Spectroscopy. Part 1: Methods and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, ed. (S. G. Schulman, 1985), pp. 167-370.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Multi-layer models for the SsC and OB. Left column: the SsC model is constituted of Layer I (LI) and Layer II (LII), encompassing respectively layer 1 (L1) and layer 2, 3 and 4 (L2, L3, L4). Right column: the OB model is constituted of the olfactory nerve layer (ONL), glomerular layer (GL) and underneath the glomerular layer (UGL) encompassing the external plexifom layer, mitral cell layer, internal plexiform layer and the granule cell layer. See text for further details.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption of excitation light at 350 and 440 nm by SsC tissues. A- Reflected (R), transmitted (T) and absorbed (ALI and ALII correspond to absorption in LI and LII, respectively) photons expressed as a percentage of the total number of photons launched. B- Absorbed excitation photons as a function of depth in the SsC expressed as a percentage of total absorbed photons. C-Percentage of photons absorbed in L2 leading to fluorescence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption of excitation light at 350 and 440 nm by OB tissues. A- Reflected (R), transmitted (T) and absorbed (AONL, AGL and AUGL correspond to photons absorbed in ONL, GL and UGL, respectively) photons expressed as a percentage of the total number of photons launched. B- Absorbed excitation photons as a function of depth in the OB expressed as a percentage of total absorbed photons. C- Percentage of photons absorbed in GL leading to fluorescence.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity of the detected AF signals emitted at 440 and 530 nm from GL and LII. A- Percentage of fluorescent photons emitted by GL and LII and detected by the optical set-up in function of its origin in depth. B- Percentage of launched fluorescent photons detected by the optical set-up at the surface of tissues. C- Simulation of images at the surface of the SsC and OB for NADH-AF and Fp-AF signals (440 and 530 nm, respectively). Intensity (I) is normalized by the maximum value of intensity at 530 nm (Imax530nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Influence of Δ[Hb]t on the intensity of AF signals in the SsC and OB A- Relative number of detected fluorescent photons as a function of Δ[Hb]t compared to the intensity recorded at Δ[Hb]t=0%. B- Simulation of images at the surface of the SsC for NADH and Fp-AF signals (440 nm and 530 nm, respectively) at baseline conditions with no increase in [Hb]t (Δ[Hb]t=0%, left column) compared to an activity-dependent increase in [Hb]t (maximal Δ[Hb]t=30%, right column). Intensity (I) is normalized by the maximum value of intensity at Δ[Hb]t=0% (IΔ[Hb]t=0%).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Optical properties in the OB with [Hb]t values of 5.4, 7.5 and 5.4 g/l, respectively for ONL, GL,UGL

Tables Icon

Table 2: Optical properties in the SsC with [Hb]t values of 7.5 and 10 g/l, respectively for LI and LII

Tables Icon

Table 3: Hemoglobin concentration in g/l in each layer for activity-evoked Δ[Hb]t

Tables Icon

Table 4: Absorption coefficient in cm-1 in each layer at 440 and 520 nm for increasing Δ[Hb]t

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μaHb(λ)=2 , 303×[[Hb]t×εHbR(λ)×(1S)+[Hb]t×εHbO2(λ)×S]
μa (λ)=μaHb(λ)+μacell(λ)

Metrics