Abstract

In this study, the second harmonic generation (SHG) response to polarization and subsequent data analysis is used to discriminate, in the same image, different SHG source architectures with pixel resolution. This is demonstrated in a mammalian tissue containing both skeletal muscle and fibrilar collagen. The SHG intensity variation with the input polarization (PSHG) is fitted pixel by pixel in the image using an algorithm based on a generalized biophysical model. The analysis provides the effective orientation, θe, of the different SHG active structures (harmonophores) at every pixel. This results in a new image in which collagen and muscle are clearly differentiated. In order to quantify the SHG response, the distribution of θe for every harmonophore is obtained. We found that for collagen, the distribution was centered at θe=42.7° with a full width at half maximum of Δθ=5.9° while for muscle θe=65.3°, with Δθ=7.7°. By comparing these distributions, a quantitative measurement of the discrimination procedure is provided.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Beck, and B. Brodsky, "Supercoiled protein motifs: the collagen triple-helix and the α-helical coiled coil," J. Struct. Biol. 122(1-2), 17-29 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Odin, T. Guilbert, A. Alkilani, O. P. Boryskina, V. Fleury, and Y. Le Grand, "Collagen and myosin characterization by orientation field second harmonic microscopy," Opt. Express 16(20), 16151-16165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, "Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma," Opt. Express 16(3), 1846-1859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, "Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370-11375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, and A. Knoesen, "Spectral moment invariant analysis of disorder in polarization-modulated second-harmonic-generation images obtained from collagen assemblies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(11), 3573-3586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, and A. Knoesen, "Rotation- and scale-invariant texture features based on spectral moment invariants," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2550-2557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic generation microscopy by polarization manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Tiaho, G. Recher, and D. Rouede, "Estimation of helical angles of myosin and collagen by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy," Opt. Express 15(19), 12286-12295 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen," Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330-3342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-stokes raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Beck, and B. Brodsky, "Supercoiled protein motifs: the collagen triple-helix and the α-helical coiled coil," J. Struct. Biol. 122(1-2), 17-29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Bella, M. Eaton, B. Brodsky, and H. M. Berman, "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A resolution," Science 266(5182), 75-81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248(4951), 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. R. Shen, "Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation," Nature 337(6207), 519-525 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. E. Aubin, "Autofluorescence of viable cultured mammalian cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27(1), 36-43 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Roth, and I. Freund, "Second harmonic generation in collagen," J. Chem. Phys. 70(4), 1637-1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

T. Förster, "Zwischenmolekulare Energiewanderung und Fluoreszenz," Ann. Phys. 437(1-2), 55-75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Alkilani, A.

Amat-Roldan, I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amat-Roldán, I.

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anisha Thayil, K. N.

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Artigas, D.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aubin, J. E.

J. E. Aubin, "Autofluorescence of viable cultured mammalian cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27(1), 36-43 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beck, K.

K. Beck, and B. Brodsky, "Supercoiled protein motifs: the collagen triple-helix and the α-helical coiled coil," J. Struct. Biol. 122(1-2), 17-29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bella, J.

J. Bella, M. Eaton, B. Brodsky, and H. M. Berman, "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A resolution," Science 266(5182), 75-81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berman, H. M.

J. Bella, M. Eaton, B. Brodsky, and H. M. Berman, "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A resolution," Science 266(5182), 75-81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, K. W.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boryskina, O. P.

Both, M.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brodsky, B.

K. Beck, and B. Brodsky, "Supercoiled protein motifs: the collagen triple-helix and the α-helical coiled coil," J. Struct. Biol. 122(1-2), 17-29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bella, M. Eaton, B. Brodsky, and H. M. Berman, "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A resolution," Science 266(5182), 75-81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. B.

Burke, R. M.

Campagnola, P.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen," Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330-3342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charpak, S.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Y.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. W.

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic generation microscopy by polarization manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, I. G.

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248(4951), 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dombeck, D. A.

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, "Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370-11375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, M.

J. Bella, M. Eaton, B. Brodsky, and H. M. Berman, "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A resolution," Science 266(5182), 75-81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fink, R. H. A.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, V.

Förster, T.

T. Förster, "Zwischenmolekulare Energiewanderung und Fluoreszenz," Ann. Phys. 437(1-2), 55-75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Frank, C. W.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freund, I.

S. Roth, and I. Freund, "Second harmonic generation in collagen," J. Chem. Phys. 70(4), 1637-1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, O.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gualda, E. J.

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guilbert, T.

Han, X.

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-stokes raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, B. T.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ingelsson, M.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, A.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Juneja, V.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasischke, K. A.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Künsting, T.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwan, A. C.

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, "Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370-11375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Le Grand, Y.

Lin, B. L.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic generation microscopy by polarization manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. M.

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, J. C.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, M.

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, I. R.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Millard, A. C.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moger, J.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, W.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, W. A.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreaux, L.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nowaczyk, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Odin, C.

Plotnikov, S.

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Recher, G.

Reiser, K. M.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, and A. Knoesen, "Spectral moment invariant analysis of disorder in polarization-modulated second-harmonic-generation images obtained from collagen assemblies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(11), 3573-3586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen," Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330-3342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rocha-Mendoza, I.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

S. Roth, and I. Freund, "Second harmonic generation in collagen," J. Chem. Phys. 70(4), 1637-1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rouede, D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen," Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330-3342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sandre, O.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S. I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, "Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation," Nature 337(6207), 519-525 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen," Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330-3342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248(4951), 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic generation microscopy by polarization manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szmacinski, H.

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S. P.

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic generation microscopy by polarization manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thayil, A. K.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiaho, F.

Tsai, T. H.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uttenweiler, D.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vishwasrao, H. D.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, M.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Wegner, F.

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Webb, W. W.

A. C. Kwan, D. A. Dombeck, and W. W. Webb, "Polarized microtubule arrays in apical dendrites and axons," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(32), 11370-11375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(12), 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248(4951), 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Winlove, C. P.

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-stokes raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevich, D. R.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zettel, M. L.

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-stokes raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging," Anal. Biochem. 202(2), 316-330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

T. Förster, "Zwischenmolekulare Energiewanderung und Fluoreszenz," Ann. Phys. 437(1-2), 55-75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic generation microscopy by polarization manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (6)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three - dimensional high-resolution second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82(1), 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, S. Charpak, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80(3), 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Plotnikov, V. Juneja, A. Isaacson, W. Mohler, and P. Campagnola, "Optical Clearing for Improved Contrast in Second Harmonic Generation Imaging of Skeletal Muscle," Biophys. J. 90(1), 328-339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, A. Knoesen; I. R. Mendoza, "Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: the molecular origins of the optical second-order nonlinearity of collagen," Biophys. J. 93(12), 4433-4444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Stoller, K. M. Reiser, P. M. Celliers, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen," Biophys. J. 82(6), 3330-3342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, "Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914-3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. Both, M. Vogel, O. Friedrich, F. von Wegner, T. Künsting, R. H. A. Fink, and D. Uttenweiler, "Second harmonic imaging of intrinsic signals in muscle fibers in situ," J. Biomed. Opt. 9(5), 882-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Mansfield, C. P. Winlove, J. Moger, and S. J. Matcher, "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, T. M. Liu, C. K. Sun, and C. H. Lin, "Selective imaging in second-harmonic-generation microscopy with anisotropic radiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Roth, and I. Freund, "Second harmonic generation in collagen," J. Chem. Phys. 70(4), 1637-1643 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Aubin, "Autofluorescence of viable cultured mammalian cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27(1), 36-43 (1979).
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J. Microsc. (1)

K. N. Anisha Thayil, E. J. Gualda, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. G. Cormack, I. Amat-Roldán, M. Mathew, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, "Starch-based backwards SHG for in situ MEFISTO pulse characterization in multiphoton microscopy," J. Microsc. 230(Pt 1), 70-75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

K. Beck, and B. Brodsky, "Supercoiled protein motifs: the collagen triple-helix and the α-helical coiled coil," J. Struct. Biol. 122(1-2), 17-29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. R. Shen, "Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation," Nature 337(6207), 519-525 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-stokes raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PSHG at temporalis muscle and analysis. Discriminating between muscle and collagen. (a) Mean SHG intensity of all 9 PSHG images. (b) Image showing the pixels with the coefficient of determination, r2, bigger than 90%. (c) Contrast provided by the b parameter of Eq. (13). (d) Image showing, for every pixel, the effective orientations of harmonophores in degrees. ROI, is shown by the rectangle. Scale bar in panel (a) represents 10µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Backward detected mean SHG intensity of all 9 PSHG images. Scale bar shows 10µm

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Histograms and Gaussian fittings calculated for the ROI in Fig. 1(d). For muscle the distribution of the effective orientations of the harmonophores is centered at θe=65.3° with a Δθe=7.7°, while for collagen θe=42.7°.with a Δθe=5.9°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fitting using 4 polarization steps: α=0°, 40°, 80° and 120° degrees. a) Image showing, for every pixel, the effective orientations of harmonophores (in degrees), after filtering with r2>99%. b) Histograms and Gaussian fitting calculated for the ROI in Fig. 4(a). The ROI is placed in the same coordinates as in Fig. 1d). For muscle the peak of the distribution of the effective orientation of harmonophores is centered at θe=59.9° with a Δθe=4.1°, while for collagen θe=49.2° Δθe=5.7°.

Equations (3)

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I2ω I0 {sin2[2(ϕα)]+[sin2(ϕα)+χ33(2)χ15(2)cos2(ϕα)]2},
cos2θe=χ33(2)χ15(2)2+χ33(2)χ15(2),
I2ωE{sin22(ϕα)+[sin2(ϕα)+bcos2(ϕα)]2}+Δ,

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