Abstract

A versatile THz/IR near field microscope is demonstrated. Collecting the scattered light from a THz in-situ subwavelength source, this microscope provides images with resolution better than λ10 . The physical origin of the contrast is explained by a Mie scattering diffraction model. Owing to the classical nature of this microscope working in the near field, resolution of THz/IR images is improved using deconvolution process.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

B. Gompf, N. Gebert, H. Heer, and M. Dressel, "Polarization contrast terahertz-near-field imaging of anisotropic conductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y.-P. Yang, H. Chen, and L. Wang, "Terahertz electric field in a three-layer system produced by parallel dipoles with a Gaussian spatial profile," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, N. C. J. Van der Valk, and P. C. M. Planken, "Measurement and calculation of the near field of a terahertz apertureless scanning optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1080-1090 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, "Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding," Opt. Lett. 31, 308-310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lecaque, S. Grésillon, N. Barbey, R. Peretti, J.-C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "THz near-field optical imaging by a local source," Opt. Commun. 262, 125-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. Y. Gaivoronskii, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhinkov, E. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, "Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal," Quantum Electron. 35, 407-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, "A novel metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 014910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Dakovski, B. Kubera, and J. Shan, "Localized terahertz generation via optical rectification in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1667-1670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, "Local infrared microspectroscopy with subwavelength spatial resolution with an atomic force microscope tip used as a photothermal sensor," Opt. Lett. 30, 2388-2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. Kiwa, M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and K. Kawase, "Laser terahertz-emission microscope for inspecting electrical faults in integrated circuits," Opt. Lett. 28, 2058-2060 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Simanovskii, D. Palanker, K. Cohn, and T. Smith, "Transient optical elements: application to near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 307-310 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, "Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009-3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. X. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture," Opt. Lett. 25, 1122-1124 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, S. Ducourtieux, A. Lahrech, L. Aigouy, J. C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "Nanometer scale apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 118-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. Federici, "Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 3496-3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Keilmann, B. Knoll, and A. Kramer, "Long-wave-infrared near-field microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi B. 215, 849-854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M.C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. H. K. Stezler, "Contrast, resolution, pixelisation, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio : fundamental limits to resolution in fluorescence light microscopy," J. Microsc. 189, 15-24 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautmann, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier : optical microscopy on a nanometer scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237,510-512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1928

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending the microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356-362 (1928).

1926

W. V. Houston, "The fine structure and the wave-lengths of the balmer lines," The Astrophysical Journal 64, 81-92 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Aigouy, L.

S. Grésillon, S. Ducourtieux, A. Lahrech, L. Aigouy, J. C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "Nanometer scale apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 118-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237,510-512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbey, N.

R. Lecaque, S. Grésillon, N. Barbey, R. Peretti, J.-C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "THz near-field optical imaging by a local source," Opt. Commun. 262, 125-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautmann, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier : optical microscopy on a nanometer scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

R. Lecaque, S. Grésillon, N. Barbey, R. Peretti, J.-C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "THz near-field optical imaging by a local source," Opt. Commun. 262, 125-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, S. Ducourtieux, A. Lahrech, L. Aigouy, J. C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "Nanometer scale apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 118-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. Federici, "Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 3496-3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M.C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carminatti, R.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

W. Yan, Y.-P. Yang, H. Chen, and L. Wang, "Terahertz electric field in a three-layer system produced by parallel dipoles with a Gaussian spatial profile," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, "Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009-3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, L.-J.

Chen, Q.

Chen, Y.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, G. C.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, "Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009-3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, K.

D. Simanovskii, D. Palanker, K. Cohn, and T. Smith, "Transient optical elements: application to near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 307-310 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakovski, G. L.

Dazzi, A.

De Wilde, Y.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dressel, M.

B. Gompf, N. Gebert, H. Heer, and M. Dressel, "Polarization contrast terahertz-near-field imaging of anisotropic conductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ducourtieux, S.

S. Grésillon, S. Ducourtieux, A. Lahrech, L. Aigouy, J. C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "Nanometer scale apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 118-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. Federici, "Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 3496-3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Formanek, F.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaivoronskii, V. Y.

V. Y. Gaivoronskii, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhinkov, E. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, "Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal," Quantum Electron. 35, 407-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gebert, N.

B. Gompf, N. Gebert, H. Heer, and M. Dressel, "Polarization contrast terahertz-near-field imaging of anisotropic conductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glotin, F.

Gompf, B.

B. Gompf, N. Gebert, H. Heer, and M. Dressel, "Polarization contrast terahertz-near-field imaging of anisotropic conductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gralak, B.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.-J.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grésillon, S.

R. Lecaque, S. Grésillon, N. Barbey, R. Peretti, J.-C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "THz near-field optical imaging by a local source," Opt. Commun. 262, 125-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, S. Ducourtieux, A. Lahrech, L. Aigouy, J. C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "Nanometer scale apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 118-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harel, T.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. Federici, "Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 3496-3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautmann, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier : optical microscopy on a nanometer scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heer, H.

B. Gompf, N. Gebert, H. Heer, and M. Dressel, "Polarization contrast terahertz-near-field imaging of anisotropic conductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houston, W. V.

W. V. Houston, "The fine structure and the wave-lengths of the balmer lines," The Astrophysical Journal 64, 81-92 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M.C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Joulain, K.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadlec, F.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, "A novel metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 014910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-F.

Kawase, K.

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann, B. Knoll, and A. Kramer, "Long-wave-infrared near-field microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi B. 215, 849-854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, "Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009-3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiwa, T.

Klein, N.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, "A novel metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 014910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, B.

F. Keilmann, B. Knoll, and A. Kramer, "Long-wave-infrared near-field microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi B. 215, 849-854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M.C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautmann, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier : optical microscopy on a nanometer scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, A.

F. Keilmann, B. Knoll, and A. Kramer, "Long-wave-infrared near-field microscopy," Phys. Status Solidi B. 215, 849-854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubera, B.

Kuzel, P.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, "A novel metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 014910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lahl, P.

N. Klein, P. Lahl, U. Poppe, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, "A novel metal-dielectric antenna for terahertz near-field imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 014910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lahrech, A.

S. Grésillon, S. Ducourtieux, A. Lahrech, L. Aigouy, J. C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "Nanometer scale apertureless near-field microscopy," Appl. Surf. Sci. 164, 118-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lecaque, R.

R. Lecaque, S. Grésillon, N. Barbey, R. Peretti, J.-C. Rivoal, and A. C. Boccara, "THz near-field optical imaging by a local source," Opt. Commun. 262, 125-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemoine, P.-A.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.-Y.

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. Harel, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. Federici, "Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 3496-3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.-P.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminatti, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy," Nature (London) 444, 740-743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazarov, M. M.

V. Y. Gaivoronskii, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhinkov, E. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, "Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal," Quantum Electron. 35, 407-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, G.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237,510-512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M.C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Near-field microscopy set-up for THz and IR radiation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Knife edge THz image with normalized intensity on a bare surface of ZnTe crystal. (a) 100×100µm 2 image of the edge of the ZnTe crystal. (b) profile taken from a line parallel to the displacement of the crystal, as drawn in image (a). The profil gives access to the size of the THz sub-wavelength source.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) THz image of a 30 µm silicon dioxide bead. This image was obtained with the bolometer. (b) IR image of a 10 µm silicon dioxyde bead. This image was obtained with HgCdTe detector.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) THz image of a human eyebrow laid on the nonlinear ZnTe crystal. (b) THz image of the same human eyebrow, with deconvolution process, showing resolution improvement.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scattering diagrams computed using Mie scattering for sub-wavelength size SiO 2 beads in the THz (a) and IR (b) domain. The dashed areas correspond to the emitted angles collected by the Cassegrain objective.

Equations (1)

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g(x,y)=[h*f](x,y)+n(x,y)

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