Abstract

This first small-animal up-conversion imager (SAUCI) was developed and used for in-vivo imaging of up-converting nanoparticles (UCNs.) Unlike traditional fluorophores, UCNs absorb multiple lower-energy photons and emit a single higher-energy photon. This unique physical process makes it possible to image deeper into tissue with lower background signals. In vivo imaging of particle accumulation in the liver was demonstrated following intravenous injection of particles.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 (American National Standard Institute, Orlando, Fl 2000).

2008 (4)

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abrahms, W. R.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarti, B.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarti, D. N.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, D. K.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corstjens, P. L. A. M

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, S.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jarvenpaa, M.-L.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kardos, K.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, N.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klinteberg, C.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuningas, K.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. F.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Louie, M.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lovgren, T.

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, U.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Ladner, U.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niedbla, R. S.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pakkila, H.

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rantanen, T.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ratanaprayul, W.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raval, A.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riehn, R.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rufaihah, A. J.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, W. S.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soukka, T.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tank, D.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanke, H. J.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C.-H.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C.-K.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ukonaho, T.

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vuojola, J.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wunder, A.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yi, T.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zuiderwijk, M.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arthritis and Rheumatism (1)

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem. (1)

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. (1)

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JACS (1)

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett. (1)

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Medicine (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Bio. (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proteomics (1)

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 (American National Standard Institute, Orlando, Fl 2000).

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