Abstract

This first small-animal up-conversion imager (SAUCI) was developed and used for in-vivo imaging of up-converting nanoparticles (UCNs.) Unlike traditional fluorophores, UCNs absorb multiple lower-energy photons and emit a single higher-energy photon. This unique physical process makes it possible to image deeper into tissue with lower background signals. In vivo imaging of particle accumulation in the liver was demonstrated following intravenous injection of particles.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 (American National Standard Institute, Orlando, Fl 2000).

2008 (4)

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abrahms, W. R.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakravarti, B.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakravarti, D. N.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, D. K.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corstjens, P. L. A. M

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, S.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jarvenpaa, M.-L.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kardos, K.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, N.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klinteberg, C.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuningas, K.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. F.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louie, M.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovgren, T.

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller-Ladner, U.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niedbla, R. S.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakkila, H.

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rantanen, T.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ratanaprayul, W.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raval, A.

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riehn, R.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rufaihah, A. J.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, W. S.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukka, T.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tank, D.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanke, H. J.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C.-H.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C.-K.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ukonaho, T.

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuojola, J.

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wunder, A.

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, T.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zuiderwijk, M.

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

T. Rantanen, M.-L. Jarvenpaa, J. Vuojola, K. Kuningas, and T. Soukka, "Fluorescence-quenching-based enzyme-activity assay by using photon upconversion," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 3811-3813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arthritis and Rheumatism (1)

A. Wunder, C.-H. Tung, U. Muller-Ladner, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, "In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis," Arthritis and Rheumatism 50, 2459-2465 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, "Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals," Biomaterials 29, 937-943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem. (1)

K. Kuningas, H. Pakkila, T. Ukonaho, T. Rantanen, T. Lovgren, and T. Soukka, "Upconversion fluorescence enables homogeneous immunoassay in whole blood," Clin. Chem. 53, 145-146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. (1)

P. L. A. M Corstjens, S. Li, M. Zuiderwijk, K. Kardos, W. R. Abrahms, R. S. Niedbla, and H. J. Tanke, "Infrared up-converting phosphors for bioassays," IEEE Proc. Nanobiotechnol. 152, 64-72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JACS (1)

Z. Chen, H. Chen, H. Hu, M. Yu, F. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Yi, and C. Huang, "Versatile synthesis strategy for carboxylic acid-functionalized upconverting nanophosphores as biological labels," JACS 130, 3023-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett. (1)

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of upconverting nanophosphors in caenorhabditis elegans" Nano. Lett. 6, 169-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Medicine (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos "Shedding light onto live molecular targets" Nature Medicine 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Bio. (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, C. Klinteberg, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg "In vivo fluorescence imaging for tissue diagnostics," Phys. Med. Bio. 42, 815-824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proteomics (1)

B. Chakravarti, M. Louie, W. Ratanaprayul, A. Raval, S. Gallagher, and D. N. Chakravarti, "A highly uniform UV transillumination imaging system for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids and proteins," Proteomics 8, 1789-1797 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 (American National Standard Institute, Orlando, Fl 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Excitation and emission wavelengths of luminescence sources are plotted in a graph. The diagonal line shows that illumination photons are reflected off the sample into the imager. Fluorophores are below the reflectance line because they absorb a higher energy photon and emit a lower energy photon. Upconverting Nanoparticles are fundamentally different; a high-energy photon is emitted following absorption of two low energy photons.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Up-converting nanoparticle emission spectrum. A 0.2 mg/mL solution of UCNs was excited by a 300mw 980nm laser diode. The emission is characterized by a collection of sharp peaks, with the strongest peak at 660nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Small animal up-conversion imager (SAUCI) system overview. Illumination is provided by a 2W laser diode. The diode is cooled through an aluminum block by a Peltier device attached to a heat sink. The laser light is collimated, filtered, and diffused. Images are captured by the camera following focusing by the lens assembly and filtering by laser reject filters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(A) Illumination profiles as measured via reflection and up conversion. (B) Laser intensity measured by pixel intensity varied linearly with laser current. UCN emission increased at a rate greater than linear, denoting a multiphoton process. (C) UCN emission increases linearly with particle concentration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In vivo up-conversion imaging. (A) White light picture of prepared mouse showing the up-conversion imaging area. (B) Up-conversion image of mouse showing liver uptake of particles. (C, E, G) White light images of spleen, kidney, and liver respectively. (D, F, H) Up-conversion images corresponding to the white light images in C, E, and G.

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