Abstract

Non-invasive visualization of cardiovascular dynamics in small animals is challenging due to their rapid heart-rates. We present a realtime photoacoustic imaging system consisting of a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer, receive electronics, a high-repetition-rate laser, and a multicore-computer, and demonstrate its ability to image optically-absorbing structures of the beating hearts of young athymic nude mice at rates of ~50 frames per second with 100 µm×25 µm spatial resolution. To our knowledge this is the first report of realtime photoacoustic imaging of physiological dynamics.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, - (2006).
  4. E. Zhang, and P. Beard, "Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 1330-1338 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. Shung, and L. Wang, "Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer," Opt. Express 16, 7915-7928 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. G. Richards, E. Simonson, and M. B. Visscher, "Electrocardiogram and Phonogram of Adult and Newborn Mice in Normal Conditions and Under the Effect of Cooling, Hypoxia and Potassium," Am. J. Physiol 174, 293-298 (1953).
    [PubMed]
  11. K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zhang, and P. Beard, "Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 1330-1338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

A. G. Richards, E. Simonson, and M. B. Visscher, "Electrocardiogram and Phonogram of Adult and Newborn Mice in Normal Conditions and Under the Effect of Cooling, Hypoxia and Potassium," Am. J. Physiol 174, 293-298 (1953).
[PubMed]

Adamson, S. L.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bast, A.

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

E. Zhang, and P. Beard, "Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 1330-1338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bitton, R.

R. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. Shung, and L. Wang, "Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer," Opt. Express 16, 7915-7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannata, J. M.

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cherin, E.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, F. S.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimbergen, J. A.

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harasiewicz, K. A.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knapik, D. A.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, K.

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. L.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lungu, G.

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehi, J.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, A. G.

A. G. Richards, E. Simonson, and M. B. Visscher, "Electrocardiogram and Phonogram of Adult and Newborn Mice in Normal Conditions and Under the Effect of Cooling, Hypoxia and Potassium," Am. J. Physiol 174, 293-298 (1953).
[PubMed]

Ritter, T. A.

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shung, K.

Shung, K. K.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simonson, E.

A. G. Richards, E. Simonson, and M. B. Visscher, "Electrocardiogram and Phonogram of Adult and Newborn Mice in Normal Conditions and Under the Effect of Cooling, Hypoxia and Potassium," Am. J. Physiol 174, 293-298 (1953).
[PubMed]

Sivaramakrishnan, M.

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Starkoski, B. G.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanacker, S. A. B. E.

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vandervijgh, W. J. F.

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Visscher, M. B.

A. G. Richards, E. Simonson, and M. B. Visscher, "Electrocardiogram and Phonogram of Adult and Newborn Mice in Normal Conditions and Under the Effect of Cooling, Hypoxia and Potassium," Am. J. Physiol 174, 293-298 (1953).
[PubMed]

Voss, H. P.

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. H. V.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, - (2006).

Wang, L. V.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. A.

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. H.

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, - (2006).

Zan, L.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemp, R.

Zemp, R. J.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, E.

E. Zhang, and P. Beard, "Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 1330-1338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M. Y.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q. F.

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. Q.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol (1)

A. G. Richards, E. Simonson, and M. B. Visscher, "Electrocardiogram and Phonogram of Adult and Newborn Mice in Normal Conditions and Under the Effect of Cooling, Hypoxia and Potassium," Am. J. Physiol 174, 293-298 (1953).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. (2)

E. Zhang, and P. Beard, "Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 1330-1338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cannata, J. A. Williams, Q. F. Zhou, T. A. Ritter, and K. K. Shung, "Development of a 35-MHz piezo-composite ultrasound array for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 53, 224-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M. L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. (1)

K. Kramer, S. A. B. E. Vanacker, H. P. Voss, J. A. Grimbergen, W. J. F. Vandervijgh, and A. Bast, "Use of Telemetry to Record Electrocardiogram and Heart-Rate in Freely Moving Mice," J. Pharmacological Toxicological Meth. 30, 209-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 1349-1361 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound. Med. Biol. (1)

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, "A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice," Ultrasound. Med. Biol. 28, 1165-1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020504 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, - (2006).

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of our photoacoustic imaging system. A tunable pulsed laser system delivers light via an optical fiber to the animal subject. A high frequency ultrasound array transducer (US Tx) receives the photoacoustic signals, which are amplified and de-multiplexed using custom receive electronics, then digitized using an 8-channel PCI data acquisition card. A computer with 8 processor cores performs realtime beamforming and display. A pulse oximeter (Pulse Ox) was used to monitor animal health and measure animal heart rates.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Media 1) Video of the realtime photoacoustic imaging system and realtime display while imaging the beating heart of an athymic nude mouse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Media 2) Photoacoustic B-scan movie of the beating heart of an athymic nude mouse. This movie sequence was reconstructed and rendered offline using data archived in realtime.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

M-mode image along the X=0 mm line in Fig. 3. The oscillating structures around the 9-mm depth below the transducer surface show the cardiac motion as a function of time. The animal’s heart estimated here as ~3 beats per second corresponded well to the 180 beats per minute as measured by the pulse oximeter.

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