Abstract

Glass microstructured optical fibers have been rendered biologically active for the first time via the immobilization of antibodies within the holes in the fiber cross-section. This has been done by introducing coating layers to the internal surfaces of soft glass fibers. The detection of proteins that bind to these antibodies has been demonstrated experimentally within this system via the use of fluorescence labeling. The approach combines the sensitivity resulting from the long interaction lengths of filled fibers with the selectivity provided by the use of antibodies.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5883-5889 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5883.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, "Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370-5 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C.H.B. Cruz, and M.C.J. Large, "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 13056-13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224-8231 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8224.
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  8. J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Emiliyanov, J. B. Jensen, and O. Bang, "Localized biosensing with Topas microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 460-462 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Opening up optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 11843-11848 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-11843.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, "A Fundamental study into the surface functionalisation of soft glass microstructured optical fibres via silane coupling agents," accepted for publication, J. Lightwave Technol. (2008).
  14. S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 15086-15092 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15086.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design, and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," submitted toNature Photonics.
  17. S. AfsharV. S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17891-17901 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17891.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).
  20. S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, "Highly-efficient fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibres; side access and thin-layer configurations," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70041X-1-4 (2008).
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2008 (1)

S. Afshar, Y. Ruan, and T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: a comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1743-1745 (2008).

2007 (6)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 15086-15092 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. AfsharV. S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17891-17901 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17891.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, "Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17819-17826 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17819.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Emiliyanov, J. B. Jensen, and O. Bang, "Localized biosensing with Topas microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 460-462 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Opening up optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 11843-11848 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-11843.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5883-5889 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5883.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afshar, S.

S. Afshar, Y. Ruan, and T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: a comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1743-1745 (2008).

S. AfsharV. S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17891-17901 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17891.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, "Highly-efficient fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibres; side access and thin-layer configurations," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70041X-1-4 (2008).

Bang, O.

Barretto, E. C. S.

Bhagwat, A. R.

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, S. K.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bise, R.

Bjarklev, A.

Bozolan, A.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bredehorst, R.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvert, J. M.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chesini, G.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C.H.B. Cruz, and M.C.J. Large, "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 13056-13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Cox, F. M.

Cruz, C. H. B.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, C.H.B.

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Debs, J.

J. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, "A Fundamental study into the surface functionalisation of soft glass microstructured optical fibres via silane coupling agents," accepted for publication, J. Lightwave Technol. (2008).

dos Santos, E. M.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Dufva, M.

Ebendoff-Heideprien, H.

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 15086-15092 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, "Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17819-17826 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17819.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, "A Fundamental study into the surface functionalisation of soft glass microstructured optical fibres via silane coupling agents," accepted for publication, J. Lightwave Technol. (2008).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design, and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," submitted toNature Photonics.

Emiliyanov, G.

Facincani, T.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foo, H.

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

Franco, M. A. R.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Georger, J. H.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geschke, O.

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, "Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370-5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, S.

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gosh, S.

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Hoffmann, P.

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, "Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17819-17826 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17819.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

Hoiby, P. E.

Høiby, P. E.

Hsu, K.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Kirby, B. J.

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

Large, M.C.J.

Ligler, F. S.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludvigsen, H.

Lwin, R.

Monro, T. M.

S. Afshar, Y. Ruan, and T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: a comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1743-1745 (2008).

S. AfsharV. S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17891-17901 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17891.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 15086-15092 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, "Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17819-17826 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17819.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, "A Fundamental study into the surface functionalisation of soft glass microstructured optical fibres via silane coupling agents," accepted for publication, J. Lightwave Technol. (2008).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design, and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," submitted toNature Photonics.

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, "Highly-efficient fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibres; side access and thin-layer configurations," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70041X-1-4 (2008).

Moore, R. C.

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

Myhra, S.

P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolau, D. V.

P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ong, J. S. K.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Petersen, J. C.

Prior, K. J.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinton, J.

J. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, "A Fundamental study into the surface functionalisation of soft glass microstructured optical fibres via silane coupling agents," accepted for publication, J. Lightwave Technol. (2008).

Renshaw, C. K.

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Ritari, T.

Ruan, Y.

S. Afshar, Y. Ruan, and T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: a comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1743-1745 (2008).

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, "Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17819-17826 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17819.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

Sawant, P. D.

P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schartner, E. P.

Shriver-Lake, L. C.

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H. R.

Sorensen, T.

Tuominen, J.

Vaz, A. R.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design, and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," submitted toNature Photonics.

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, "Highly-efficient fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibres; side access and thin-layer configurations," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70041X-1-4 (2008).

Warren-Smith, V. S. C.

Watson, G. S.

P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, T.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

L. Rindorf, P. E. Hoiby, J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, O. Bang, and O. Geschke, "Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 1370-5 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. BioChem (1)

S. K. Bhatia, L. C. Shriver-Lake, K. J. Prior, J. H. Georger, J. M. Calvert, R. Bredehorst, and F. S. Ligler, "Use of thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for immobilization of antibodies on silica surfaces," Anal. BioChem,  178, 408-413 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

P. D. Sawant, G. S. Watson, S. Myhra, and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine using an atomic force microscopy study," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 951-957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibers: side access to the fibre microstructured and single-mode liquid-core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics. (1)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design, and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," submitted toNature Photonics.

Opt. Express (9)

S. AfsharV. S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17891-17901 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17891.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Opening up optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 11843-11848 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-11843.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5883-5889 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-15-5883.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C.H.B. Cruz, and M.C.J. Large, "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 13056-13066 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-13056.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, "Design of solid-core microstructured optical fiber with steering-wheel air cladding for optimal evanescent-field sensing," Opt. Express 14, 3541-3546 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3541.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, "Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 17819-17826 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17819.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224-8231 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8224.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 15, 15086-15092 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15086.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

G. Emiliyanov, J. B. Jensen, and O. Bang, "Localized biosensing with Topas microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 460-462 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, Y. Ruan, and T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: a comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1743-1745 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Gosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, "A Fundamental study into the surface functionalisation of soft glass microstructured optical fibres via silane coupling agents," accepted for publication, J. Lightwave Technol. (2008).

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendoff-Heideprien, H. Foo, P. Hoffmann, and R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization with glass microstructured fibers: a route to sensitive and selective biosensor," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70046Q-1-4 (2008).

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, "Highly-efficient fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibres; side access and thin-layer configurations," Proc. Internat. Soc. Opt. Engin. (SPIE) 17, 70041X-1-4 (2008).

Http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/brands/Product-Brand/Qdot/Technology-Overview.html.

Http://probes.invitrogen.com/products/qdot/.

J. R. Crowther, ELISA: Theory and Practice (Humana, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images of the glass samples with immobilized Q800-labeled antibodies.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence image of the standard 30 µL100 nM antibody drop on the glass slide. The definition of the object and background for fluorescence analysis is also displayed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Binding between antibody and antigen with only one of them labeled: (a) labeled antibody (Qdot800 goat F(ab′)2 anti-mouse IgG conjungate) bond to unlabeled antigen (Purified mouse IgG); (b) antigen (mouse anti-human Qdot705 conjungate) bond to unlabeled antibody (Goat anti-Fab2 anti-Mouse IgG (H+L)); (c) 30 µL 100 nM antigen solution (mouse anti-human Qdot705 conjungate) as a reference.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fluorescence intensity captured by the forward propagating mode of F2 MOFs using Qdot 800 labeled antibodies for the case of: (a) the SEM image of the MOF used here; (b) immobilized antibodies on the internal surfaces; (c) holes with a 100 nM solution of antibodies.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the FCF in the immobilized MOF and in the solution filled MOF. The grey dots in the figures correspond to the points with the surface density of 1.42×10-3 fmol/mm2. (a) FCF ratio between two fibers with loss of immobilized fiber of 30 dB/m; (b) FCF ratio with assumed loss of the immobilized fiber as 2 dB/m; (c) length dependence of the FCF with the immobilized fiber loss of 2 dB/m.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Antibody immobilization for different glasses

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