Abstract

We developed picosecond optical-pulse sources suitable for multiphoton microscopy based on mode-locked semiconductor lasers. Using external-cavity geometry, stable hybrid mode locking was achieved at a repetition rate of 500 MHz. Semiconductor optical amplifiers driven by synchronized electric pulses reached subharmonic optical-pulse repetition rates of 1–100 MHz. Two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifiers produced optical pulses of 2 ps duration, with a peak power of a few kilowatts at a repetition rate of 10 MHz. These were employed successfully for nonlinear-optic bio-imaging using two-photon fluorescence, second-harmonic generation, and sum-frequency generation of synchronized two-color pulses.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Yokoyama, H. -C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser," Opt. Express 14, 3467-3471 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Yokoyama, "Highly reliable mode-locked semiconductor lasers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C,27-36 (2002).
  8. K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161 (1997).
  9. M. Matsuzaki, N. Honkura, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines," Nature 439, 761 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, "High-sensitivity coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering micrsocopy with two tightly synchronized picosecond lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1168 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kuramoto, N. Kitajima, H. -C. Guo, Y. Furushima, M. Ikeda, and H. Yokoyama, "Two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with an all-semiconductor laser picosecond pulse source," Opt. Lett. 32, 2726-2728 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuramoto, N. Kitajima, H. -C. Guo, Y. Furushima, M. Ikeda, and H. Yokoyama, "Two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with an all-semiconductor laser picosecond pulse source," Opt. Lett. 32, 2726-2728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsuzaki, N. Honkura, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines," Nature 439, 761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

1997 (1)

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161 (1997).

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acker, H.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bestvater, F.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. S.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

Denk, W.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161 (1997).

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duman, R. S.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis-Davies, G. C. R.

M. Matsuzaki, N. Honkura, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines," Nature 439, 761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furushima, Y.

Guo, H. -C.

Hacker, M.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heckel-Pompey, A.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honkura, N.

M. Matsuzaki, N. Honkura, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines," Nature 439, 761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

Ito, H.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. -C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser," Opt. Express 14, 3467-3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

Kajimoto, T.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, H.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, N. Honkura, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines," Nature 439, 761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, K.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitajima, N.

Kleinfeld, D.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161 (1997).

Kuramoto, M.

Matsubayashi, H.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuzaki, M.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, N. Honkura, G. C. R. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines," Nature 439, 761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, S.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porwol, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

Ren, Y.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, N.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, N.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, K.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. -C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser," Opt. Express 14, 3467-3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shikata, J.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirai, Y.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiess, E.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stobrawa, G.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161 (1997).

Takahashi, E.

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takashima, K.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. -C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser," Opt. Express 14, 3467-3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, H.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. -C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser," Opt. Express 14, 3467-3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tank, D. W.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161 (1997).

Toth, K.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsubokawa, H.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sakai, H. Tsubokawa, M. Matsuzaki, T. Kajimoto, E. Takahashi, Y. Ren, S. Ohmori, Y. Shirai, H. Matsubayashi, J. S. Chen, R. S. Duman, H. Kasai, and N. Saito, "Propagation of γPKC translocation along the dendrites of Purkinje cell in γPKC-GFP transgenic mice," Genes to Cells 9, 945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wotzlaw, C.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

Ye, J.

Yoda, T.

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H. -C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuramoto, N. Kitajima, H. -C. Guo, Y. Furushima, M. Ikeda, and H. Yokoyama, "Two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with an all-semiconductor laser picosecond pulse source," Opt. Lett. 32, 2726-2728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. -C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, and H. Ito, "Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser," Opt. Express 14, 3467-3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, "Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP," J. Microsc. 217, 200 (2004).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of the high-peak-power 980-nm optical-pulse source. The MLLD-laser oscillator is in the area enclosed by the dashed line. BPF: tunable band-pass optical filter; BS-LD: bisection-laser diode; SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier; YDFA: Yb-doped fiber amplifier; LPF: long-wavelength-pass optical filter. The inset shows a SHG autocorrelation waveform for the optical pulses from the MLLD indicating a 3-ps pulse duration assuming a sech2 shape.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Two-photon and (b) single-photon excitation fluorescence imaging of the same branch in mouse brain neurons expressing GFP. The two-photon image was taken with 0.4 kW peak-power (at the surface of the specimen) optical pulses at a 10-MHz repetition rate, and was processed using a Kalman image filter. The single-photon image was taken with a 488-nm argon-ion laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SHG imaging and (b) auto-fluorescent TPI of the same region in mouse adipose tissue. Both images were taken with 250-W peak-power (at the surface of the specimen) optical pulses at a 16-MHz repetition rate, and were processed using a Kalman image filter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example of all-electrically-controlled timing synchronization of the 980- and 1030-nm optical pulses; prism-resolved photo of SFG and SHG pulses generated in a BiB3O6 crystal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SFG imaging for PPSLT crystal surface. The periodic SFG intensity contrast corresponds to the poling periodicity.

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