Abstract

An electrically tunable wettability in a liquid crystal/polymer composite film is demonstrated, in which liquid crystal molecules are anchored among polymer grains. The tunable wettability of the composite films originates from the reorientation of the anchored liquid-crystal molecules, which is switched by an in-plane electric field with squared pulses of voltages. These liquid crystal/polymer composite films with electrically tunable wettability have potential applications in polarizer-free displays, ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and lab-on-a-chip.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. P. Russel, "Surface-responsive materials," Science 297,964-967 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Feng and L. Jiang, "Design and creation of superwetting/antiwetting surfaces," Adv. Mater. 18,3063-3078 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y, H, Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu,"Polarization-independent phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure," Opt. Express 13,8746-8752 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ibn-Elhaj and M. Schadt, "Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies" Nature 410, 796-799 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. G. de Gennes, "Wetting:statics and dynamics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,827-863 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Bico, C. Tordeux, and D. Quere, "Rough wetting," Europhys. Lett. 55,214-220 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Quere, "Rough ideas on wetting," Physica A,  313,32-46 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. N. Wenzel,"Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water," Ind. Eng. Chem. 28,988-994 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Young, "An essay on the cohesion of fluids," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 95,65-87 (1805).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, "Wettability of porous surface," Trans. Faraday Soc. 40,546-551 (1944).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

X. Feng and L. Jiang, "Design and creation of superwetting/antiwetting surfaces," Adv. Mater. 18,3063-3078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y, H, Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu,"Polarization-independent phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure," Opt. Express 13,8746-8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. P. Russel, "Surface-responsive materials," Science 297,964-967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Quere, "Rough ideas on wetting," Physica A,  313,32-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Bico, C. Tordeux, and D. Quere, "Rough wetting," Europhys. Lett. 55,214-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibn-Elhaj and M. Schadt, "Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies" Nature 410, 796-799 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

P. G. de Gennes, "Wetting:statics and dynamics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,827-863 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, "Wettability of porous surface," Trans. Faraday Soc. 40,546-551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

R. N. Wenzel,"Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water," Ind. Eng. Chem. 28,988-994 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1805 (1)

T. Young, "An essay on the cohesion of fluids," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 95,65-87 (1805).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aurbach, D.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baxter, S.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, "Wettability of porous surface," Trans. Faraday Soc. 40,546-551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bico, J.

J. Bico, C. Tordeux, and D. Quere, "Rough wetting," Europhys. Lett. 55,214-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bormashenko, E.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bormashenko, Y.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassie, A. B. D.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, "Wettability of porous surface," Trans. Faraday Soc. 40,546-551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. S.

T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, I. S.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clement, T.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corpart, J.

G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dailey, J. W.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Crevoisier, G.

G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, "Wetting:statics and dynamics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,827-863 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, P.

G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng and L. Jiang, "Design and creation of superwetting/antiwetting surfaces," Adv. Mater. 18,3063-3078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J. D.

T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fratzl, P.

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, A. A.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gras, S. L.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gust, D.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gutkin, V.

M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, M.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffer, S.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibn-Elhaj, M.

M. Ibn-Elhaj and M. Schadt, "Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies" Nature 410, 796-799 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jager, R.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

X. Feng and L. Jiang, "Design and creation of superwetting/antiwetting surfaces," Adv. Mater. 18,3063-3078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. B.

T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaido, H.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalantar-zadeh, K.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, D.

D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katz, E.

M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. J

T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krupenkin, T.

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahann, J.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, R.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leibler, L.

G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y, H, Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu,"Polarization-independent phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure," Opt. Express 13,8746-8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lupitskyy, R.

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacWilliams, E.

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmud, T.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minko, S.

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, A.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitragotri, S.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motornov, M.

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mu, L.

Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Picraux, S. T.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pogreb, R.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quere, D.

D. Quere, "Rough ideas on wetting," Physica A,  313,32-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bico, C. Tordeux, and D. Quere, "Rough wetting," Europhys. Lett. 55,214-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y, H, Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu,"Polarization-independent phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure," Opt. Express 13,8746-8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riskin, M.

M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosario, R.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russel, T. P.

T. P. Russel, "Surface-responsive materials," Science 297,964-967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Ibn-Elhaj and M. Schadt, "Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies" Nature 410, 796-799 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schechter, A.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheparovych, R.

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibata, K.

D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sidorenko, A.

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smet, M.

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Somorjai, G. A.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, T.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaram, J.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taraci, J. L.

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tordeux, C.

J. Bico, C. Tordeux, and D. Quere, "Rough wetting," Europhys. Lett. 55,214-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tran, T.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, P.

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, R. N.

R. N. Wenzel,"Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water," Ind. Eng. Chem. 28,988-994 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Whyman, G.

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willner, I.

M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, T.

T. Young, "An essay on the cohesion of fluids," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 95,65-87 (1805).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

X. Feng and L. Jiang, "Design and creation of superwetting/antiwetting surfaces," Adv. Mater. 18,3063-3078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, P. Wan, M. Smet, Z. Wang, and X. Zhang,"Self-assembled monolayers of a malachite green derivative: surfaces with pH- and UV-responsive wetting properties," Adv. Mater. 20,1972-1977 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Euro. J. (1)

Y. Liu, L. Mu, B. Liu, and J. Kong, "Controlled switchable surface," Chem. Euro. J. 11,2622-2631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chemphyschem. (1)

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-zadeh, "Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity," Chemphyschem. 8, 2036-2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. Bico, C. Tordeux, and D. Quere, "Rough wetting," Europhys. Lett. 55,214-220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

R. N. Wenzel,"Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water," Ind. Eng. Chem. 28,988-994 (1936).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

M. Motornov, R. Sheparovych, R. Lupitskyy, E. MacWilliams, and S. Minko, "Responsive colloidal systems: Reversible aggregation and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 310,481-488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, "IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film," J. Disp. Technol. 2,21-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. Rosario, D. Gust, A. A. Garcia, M. Hayes, J. L. Taraci, T. Clement, J. W. Dailey, and S. T. Picraux, "Lotus effect amplifies light-induced contact angle switching," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,12640-12642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

M. Riskin, E. Katz, V. Gutkin, and I. Willner, "Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag nanoclusters on Au electrode surfaces," Langmuir 22,10483-10489 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Jones, J. D. Fowler, Y. S. Chang, and C. J Kim, "Frequency-based relationship of electrowetting and dielectrophoretic liquid microactuation," Langmuir 19, 7646-7651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Bormashenko, R. Pogreb, G. Whyman, Y. Bormashenko, R. Jager, T. Stein, A. Schechter, and D. Aurbach, "The reversible giant change in the contact angle on the polysulfone and polyethersulfone films exposed to UV irradiation," Langmuir 24,5977-5980 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

D. Kaneko, K. Shibata, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kawakami, "Transportation of a microdroplet on an oriented liquid crystal surface," Liq. Cryst. 35, 661-664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Ibn-Elhaj and M. Schadt, "Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies" Nature 410, 796-799 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

T. Young, "An essay on the cohesion of fluids," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 95,65-87 (1805).
[CrossRef]

Physica A (1)

D. Quere, "Rough ideas on wetting," Physica A,  313,32-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film," Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

P. G. de Gennes, "Wetting:statics and dynamics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,827-863 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

G. de Crevoisier, P. Fabre, J. Corpart, and L. Leibler, "Switchable tackiness and wettability of a liquid crystalline polymer," Science 285,1246-1249 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, "A reversibly switching surface," Science 299,371-374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sidorenko, T. Krupenkin, A. Taylor, P. Fratzl, and J. Aizenberg, "Reversible switching of hydrogel-actuated nanostructures into complex micropatterns," Science 315,487-490 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Russel, "Surface-responsive materials," Science 297,964-967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, "Wettability of porous surface," Trans. Faraday Soc. 40,546-551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (1036 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (874 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (866 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the device structure of the LC/polymer composite film and (b) the magnified surface of the LC/polymer composite film at voltage-off and voltage-on states.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of the LC/polymer composite film at (a) 10 wt% LC, (b) 20 wt% LC, (c) 30 wt% LC, and (d) 40 wt% LC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscopic photos taken from a polarizing microscope with crossed polarizers at 0 Vrms and 200 Vrms. “P” indicates the transmission axis of the polarizer and “A” indicates the transmission axis of the analyzer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)Contact angle measurement (Media 1), and (b) the image observing by CCD: the side view of water droplet on the top of LC/polymer film under 200 Vrms squared pulses (f=1 kHz) observed through a CCD camera (Media 2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Water contact angle as a function of time under a squared pulsed voltage (200 Vrms) with 600 ms time duration for the LC/polymer composite films with 60 wt% LC and 0 wt% LC, and the IPS glass substrate.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Water contact angle of the LC/polymer composite film with 60 wt% LC as a function of time under different squared pulsed voltage with 600 ms time duration. (f=1 kHz)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The top view of water droplet on a LC/polymer composite film under squared pulsed voltage (200 Vrms) with 600 ms time duration. (f=1 kHz) A paper with printed images was put right behind the glass substrate (Media 3).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

cos ( θ 1 ) = R w · cos ( θ 2 ) ,
cos ( θ 2 ) = γ SV γ SL γ LV ,
cos ( θ ) = f 3 · cos ( θ 3 ) + f 4 · cos ( θ 4 ) ,
cos [ θ ' ( V rms ) ] = f l c · cos ( θ l c ( V rms ) ) + f p · cos ( θ p ) ,
cos ( θ lc ( V rms ) ) = γ lc , V ( V rms ) γ lc , L ( V rms ) γ LV ,

Metrics