Abstract

The double-pass intensity point-spread function was recorded in four subjects using a monochromatic source emitting at 543 nm, through a 6.7-mm diameter pupil i) at the fovea after adaptive optics correction of the ocular aberrations, ii) at the fovea without adaptive optics correction, and iii) at 2° of eccentricity with adaptive optics correction. The half-width at half-maximum of the double-pass point-spread function was narrower after correction of the ocular aberrations. At 2° of eccentricity this width was larger than at the fovea. The minimum widths were about 1.1 arcmin in dark pigmented eyes and 1.6 arcmin in light pigmented eyes. These values are 6 to 9 times larger than the width expected from diffraction alone.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

2005

2004

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-Optics Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
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M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2001

1999

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The Arrangement of the Three Cone Classes in the Living Human Eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995

1994

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1987

1986

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin and Melanin and Choroidal Melanin in Human Eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).
[PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, "Intensity and Polarization of Light Scattered at Small Angles from the Human Fovea," Vision Res. 26, 485-494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J.-Y. Boire, "Diffusion of the Retinal Layers of the Living Human eye," Vision Res. 24, 1097-1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical Quality of the Human Eye," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 186, 558-578 (1966).

1964

1962

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, J. W. T. Ham, D. G. III, and F. H. Schmidt, "The Relative Absorption of Thermal Energy in Retina and Choroid," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340-347 (1962).
[PubMed]

G. Westheimer and F.W. Campbell, "Light Distribution in the Image Formed by the Living Human Eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040-1045 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955

F. Flamant, "Etude de la R�??epartition de Lumi`ere dans l�??Image R�??etinienne d�??une Fente," Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 34, 433-459 (1955).

Alfieri, R.

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J.-Y. Boire, "Diffusion of the Retinal Layers of the Living Human eye," Vision Res. 24, 1097-1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Asrani, S.

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bescos, J.

Bille, J. F.

Boire, J.-Y.

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J.-Y. Boire, "Diffusion of the Retinal Layers of the Living Human eye," Vision Res. 24, 1097-1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouman, M. A.

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Brainard, D. H.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical Quality of the Human Eye," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 186, 558-578 (1966).

Campbell, F.W.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Chamot, S. R.

Chan, G.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, J. W. T. Ham, D. G. III, and F. H. Schmidt, "The Relative Absorption of Thermal Energy in Retina and Choroid," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340-347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Choi, S.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Dainty, J. C.

Dalimier, E.

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori and K. P. Pflibsen, "Spectral Reflectance of the Human Ocular Fundus," Appl. Opt. 28, 1061-1077 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin and Melanin and Choroidal Melanin in Human Eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Diaz-Santana, L.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A.W.

Drexler, W.

Elsner, A. E.

Esposito, S.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, D.

Fernandez, E. J.

Fitch, K. A.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin and Melanin and Choroidal Melanin in Human Eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant, "Etude de la R�??epartition de Lumi`ere dans l�??Image R�??etinienne d�??une Fente," Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 34, 433-459 (1955).

Gargasson, J.-F. L.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasson, P.

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, J. W. T. Ham, D. G. III, and F. H. Schmidt, "The Relative Absorption of Thermal Energy in Retina and Choroid," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340-347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gorrand, J. M.

J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, and J.-Y. Boire, "Diffusion of the Retinal Layers of the Living Human eye," Vision Res. 24, 1097-1106 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical Quality of the Human Eye," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 186, 558-578 (1966).

Ham, J. W. T.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, J. W. T. Ham, D. G. III, and F. H. Schmidt, "The Relative Absorption of Thermal Energy in Retina and Choroid," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340-347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Liang, J.

Marcos, S.

McMahon, M. J.

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

Mori, M.

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

Munro, I.

Navarro, R.

Olivier, S. S.

Pflibsen, K. P.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Prieto, P. M.

Qu, J.

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Santamar???ia, J.

Sattmann, H.

Shahidi, M.

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, K. E.

Torti, C.

Tumbar, R.

Unterhuber, A.

van Blokland, G. J.

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, "Intensity and Polarization of Light Scattered at Small Angles from the Human Fovea," Vision Res. 26, 485-494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, "Intensity and Polarization of Light Scattered at Small Angles from the Human Fovea," Vision Res. 26, 485-494 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

Weinreb, R. N.

Weiter, J. J.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin and Melanin and Choroidal Melanin in Human Eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Westheimer, G.

Williams, D. R.

Williams, R. C.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, J. W. T. Ham, D. G. III, and F. H. Schmidt, "The Relative Absorption of Thermal Energy in Retina and Choroid," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340-347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Wing, G. L.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin and Melanin and Choroidal Melanin in Human Eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).
[PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zeimer, R.

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Zou, S.

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Invest. Ophthalmol.

W. J. Geeraets, R. C. Williams, G. Chan, J. W. T. Ham, D. G. III, and F. H. Schmidt, "The Relative Absorption of Thermal Energy in Retina and Choroid," Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 340-347 (1962).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

R. Zeimer, M. Shahidi, M. Mori, S. Zou, and S. Asrani, "A New Method for Rapid Mapping of the Retinal Thickness at the Posterior Pole," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1994-2001 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, "Retinal Pigment Epithelial Lipofuscin and Melanin and Choroidal Melanin in Human Eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).
[PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol. (Lond.)

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, "Optical Quality of the Human Eye," J. Physiol. (Lond.) 186, 558-578 (1966).

Nature

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The Arrangement of the Three Cone Classes in the Living Human Eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive Optics Flood-Illumination Camera for High Speed Retinal Imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. DonnellyIII, H. Queener, T. J. Herbert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive Optics Parallel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging the Living Retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for High-Resolution and High-Speed 3D Retinal In Vivo Imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the optical system, CCD charge coupled device, BS beam splitter (90 % transmission, 10 % reflection), DBS dichroic beam splitter, L lens, OL ophthalmic lens, B laser beams, DM deformable mirror, WS wavefront sensor

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Single pass PSF image of the system illumination (left) and observation (right) and the corresponding radial profile of intensity (CCD camera analog to digital counts, ADU). The image width is 4.0 arcmin.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical results obtained for the four subjects A to D (Series 1, 0 µm). The first line shows the RMS wavefront aberration during AO correction. The following lines show the measured double-pass PSF image (second), its radial profile of intensity with the Lorentzian fit (third), the reconstructed double-pass PSF (fourth) and its radial profile (sixth), all related to the WS data of the first line. All PSF images have a width of 8 arcmin.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

HWHM of the double-pass PSF for the four subjects A to D and the three series; triangle at fovea without AO, black square at fovea with AO, open square at 2° of eccentricity with AO. The HWHM of the reconstructed double-pass PSF of the series with AO corrections are shown using circles. The black circle shows the data obtained at the fovea and open circle shows the data obtained at 2° of eccentricity. Error bars represent the standard deviation of the mean (N=3).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Minimum HWHM in arcmin of the measured double-pass PSF obtained for each series and each subjects

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