Abstract

The optical cell rotator (OCR) is a modified dual-beam laser trap for the holding and controlled rotation of suspended dielectric microparticles, such as cells. In contrast to optical tweezers, OCR uses two counter-propagating divergent laser beams, which are shaped and delivered by optical fibers. The rotation of a trapped specimen is carried out by the rotation of a dual-mode fiber, emitting an asymmetric laser beam. Experiments were performed on human erythrocytes, promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60), and cell clusters (MCF-7). Since OCR permits the rotation of cells around an axis perpendicular to the optical axis of any microscope and is fully decoupled from imaging optics, it could be a suitable and expedient tool for tomographic microscopy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

H. Zhang and K. Liu, “Optical tweezers for single cells,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5, 671–690 (2008). http://journals.royalsociety.org/index/9804324253112122.pdf.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Renaud, J. Vina, Y. Yu, C. Machu, A. Trouve, H. Van der Voort, B. Chalmond, and S. Shorte, “High-resolution 3-D imaging of living cells in suspension using confocal axial tomography.” Biotechnol. J. 3, 53–62 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.200700188.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Swoger, P. Verveer, K. Greger, J. Huisken, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Multi-view image fusion improves resolution in three-dimensional microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 8029–8042 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-13-8029.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Franze, J. Grosche, S. N. Skatchkov, S. Schinkinger, C. Foja, D. Schild, O. Uckermann, K. Travis, A. Reichenbach, and J. Guck, “Muller cells are living optical fibers in the vertebrate retina.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8287–8292 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611180104.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, “Optical manipulation takes hold,” Nano Today 1, 18–27 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1748-0132(06)70019-6.
[CrossRef]

F. Charriere, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. D. Mitchell, P. Marquet, and B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14, 7005–7013 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert, and M. Miles, “An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects,” Opt. Express 14, 12,497–12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. Stelzer, “Optical Sectioning Deep Inside Live Embryos by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy,” Science 305, 1007–1009 (2004). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/305/5686/1007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, “Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829–831 (2003). http://link.aip.org/li nk/?APPLAB/82/82 9/1.
[CrossRef]

R. Dasgupta, S. Mohanty, and P. Gupta, “Controlled rotation of biological microscopic objects using optical line tweezers,” Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625–1628 (2003). http://www.springerlink.com/index/T20RW4Q4J7587VX1.pdf.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture.” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7–16 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528950.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. Heintzmann and C. Cremer, “Axial tomographic confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206, 7–23 (2002). http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118942885/abstract.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O’Neil and M. Padgett, “Rotational control within optical tweezers by use of a rotating aperture,” Opt. Lett. 27, 743–745 (2002). http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-27-9-743.
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 1810–1816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,” Science 292, 912–914 (2001). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5518/912.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: A novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells.” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/full/81/2/767.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping.” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1333676.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical Deformability of Soft Biological Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5451–5454 (2000). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i23/p5451 1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348 (1998). http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0308113.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v75/i5/p826 1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of a fiber-optical light-force trap,” Opt. Lett 18, 1867–1869 (1993). http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-18-21-1867.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, “Optical trapping and rotational manipulation of microscopic particles and biological cells using higher-order mode Nd: YAG laserbeams,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1831–1832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Safaai-Jazi and J. McKeeman, “Synthesis of intensity patterns in few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1047–1052 (1991). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=85799.
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Shaw, D. Agard, Y. Hiraoka, and J. Sedat, “Tilted view reconstruction in optical microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Drosophila melanogaster embryo nuclei.” Biophys. J. 55, 101–110 (1989). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/reprint/55/1/101.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, “Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells.” Biophys. J. 14, 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

D. Gloge, “Weakly guiding fibers,” Appl. Opt 10, 2252–2258 (1971). http://oe.osa.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=73014&seq=0.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gloge, “Dispersion in weakly guiding fibers,” Appl. Opt 10, 2442 (1971). http://ao.osa.org/ViewMedia.cfm?id=72974&seq=0.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and Trapping of Particles by Radiation Pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156–159 (1970). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v24/i4/p156 1.
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

R. A. Beth, “Mechanical Detection and Measurement of the Angular Momentum of Light,” Phys. Rev. 50, 115–125 (1936). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v50/i2/p115 1.
[CrossRef]

Agard, D.

P. Shaw, D. Agard, Y. Hiraoka, and J. Sedat, “Tilted view reconstruction in optical microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Drosophila melanogaster embryo nuclei.” Biophys. J. 55, 101–110 (1989). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/reprint/55/1/101.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum, (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 2003). http://stacks.iop.org/1464-4266/6/365.
[CrossRef]

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: A novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells.” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/full/81/2/767.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical Deformability of Soft Biological Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5451–5454 (2000). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i23/p5451 1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,” Science 292, 912–914 (2001). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5518/912.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and Trapping of Particles by Radiation Pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156–159 (1970). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v24/i4/p156 1.
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum, (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 2003). http://stacks.iop.org/1464-4266/6/365.
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

Beth, R. A.

R. A. Beth, “Mechanical Detection and Measurement of the Angular Momentum of Light,” Phys. Rev. 50, 115–125 (1936). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v50/i2/p115 1.
[CrossRef]

Bingelyte, V.

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, “Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829–831 (2003). http://link.aip.org/li nk/?APPLAB/82/82 9/1.
[CrossRef]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture.” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7–16 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528950.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunsting, A.

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, “Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells.” Biophys. J. 14, 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,” Science 292, 912–914 (2001). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5518/912.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chalmond, B.

O. Renaud, J. Vina, Y. Yu, C. Machu, A. Trouve, H. Van der Voort, B. Chalmond, and S. Shorte, “High-resolution 3-D imaging of living cells in suspension using confocal axial tomography.” Biotechnol. J. 3, 53–62 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.200700188.
[CrossRef]

Charriere, F.

Collier, T.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture.” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7–16 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528950.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Constable, A.

A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of a fiber-optical light-force trap,” Opt. Lett 18, 1867–1869 (1993). http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-18-21-1867.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, “Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829–831 (2003). http://link.aip.org/li nk/?APPLAB/82/82 9/1.
[CrossRef]

Cremer, C.

R. Heintzmann and C. Cremer, “Axial tomographic confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206, 7–23 (2002). http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118942885/abstract.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, C. C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: A novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells.” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/full/81/2/767.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical Deformability of Soft Biological Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5451–5454 (2000). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i23/p5451 1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasgupta, R.

R. Dasgupta, S. Mohanty, and P. Gupta, “Controlled rotation of biological microscopic objects using optical line tweezers,” Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625–1628 (2003). http://www.springerlink.com/index/T20RW4Q4J7587VX1.pdf.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dearing, M. T.

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 1810–1816 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Del Bene, F.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. Stelzer, “Optical Sectioning Deep Inside Live Embryos by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy,” Science 305, 1007–1009 (2004). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/305/5686/1007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dholakia, K.

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, “Optical manipulation takes hold,” Nano Today 1, 18–27 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1748-0132(06)70019-6.
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,” Science 292, 912–914 (2001). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5518/912.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture.” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7–16 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528950.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufresne, E. R.

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A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of a fiber-optical light-force trap,” Opt. Lett 18, 1867–1869 (1993). http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-18-21-1867.
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M. Kreysing, J. Guck, and J. Käs, “Device and method for contactless manipulation and alignment of sample particles in a measurement volume with the aid of an inhomogeneous electrical alternating field.” European patent, EP1935498A1 (2007).

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G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert, and M. Miles, “An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects,” Opt. Express 14, 12,497–12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12497.
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J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: A novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells.” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/full/81/2/767.
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A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of a fiber-optical light-force trap,” Opt. Lett 18, 1867–1869 (1993). http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-18-21-1867.
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Miles, M.

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert, and M. Miles, “An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects,” Opt. Express 14, 12,497–12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12497.
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R. Dasgupta, S. Mohanty, and P. Gupta, “Controlled rotation of biological microscopic objects using optical line tweezers,” Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625–1628 (2003). http://www.springerlink.com/index/T20RW4Q4J7587VX1.pdf.
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J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: A novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells.” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/full/81/2/767.
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Padgett, M.

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert, and M. Miles, “An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects,” Opt. Express 14, 12,497–12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12497.
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Patten, F.

Pavillon, N.

Prentiss, M.

A. Constable, J. Kim, J. Mervis, F. Zarinetchi, and M. Prentiss, “Demonstration of a fiber-optical light-force trap,” Opt. Lett 18, 1867–1869 (1993). http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-18-21-1867.
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O. Renaud, J. Vina, Y. Yu, C. Machu, A. Trouve, H. Van der Voort, B. Chalmond, and S. Shorte, “High-resolution 3-D imaging of living cells in suspension using confocal axial tomography.” Biotechnol. J. 3, 53–62 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.200700188.
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R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture.” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7–16 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1528950.
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Robert, D.

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert, and M. Miles, “An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects,” Opt. Express 14, 12,497–12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12497.
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M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394, 348 (1998). http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0308113.
[CrossRef]

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Safaai-Jazi, A.

A. Safaai-Jazi and J. McKeeman, “Synthesis of intensity patterns in few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1047–1052 (1991). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=85799.
[CrossRef]

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S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, “Optical trapping and rotational manipulation of microscopic particles and biological cells using higher-order mode Nd: YAG laserbeams,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1831–1832 (1991).
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K. Franze, J. Grosche, S. N. Skatchkov, S. Schinkinger, C. Foja, D. Schild, O. Uckermann, K. Travis, A. Reichenbach, and J. Guck, “Muller cells are living optical fibers in the vertebrate retina.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8287–8292 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611180104.
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K. Franze, J. Grosche, S. N. Skatchkov, S. Schinkinger, C. Foja, D. Schild, O. Uckermann, K. Travis, A. Reichenbach, and J. Guck, “Muller cells are living optical fibers in the vertebrate retina.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8287–8292 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611180104.
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P. Shaw, D. Agard, Y. Hiraoka, and J. Sedat, “Tilted view reconstruction in optical microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Drosophila melanogaster embryo nuclei.” Biophys. J. 55, 101–110 (1989). http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/reprint/55/1/101.
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Shaw, P.

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E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 1810–1816 (2001).
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O. Renaud, J. Vina, Y. Yu, C. Machu, A. Trouve, H. Van der Voort, B. Chalmond, and S. Shorte, “High-resolution 3-D imaging of living cells in suspension using confocal axial tomography.” Biotechnol. J. 3, 53–62 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.200700188.
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Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,” Science 292, 912–914 (2001). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/5518/912.
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Skatchkov, S. N.

K. Franze, J. Grosche, S. N. Skatchkov, S. Schinkinger, C. Foja, D. Schild, O. Uckermann, K. Travis, A. Reichenbach, and J. Guck, “Muller cells are living optical fibers in the vertebrate retina.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8287–8292 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611180104.
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Skirtach, A. G.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, and C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping.” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1333676.
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Spalding, G. C.

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, “Computer-generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 1810–1816 (2001).
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Stelzer, E.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. Stelzer, “Optical Sectioning Deep Inside Live Embryos by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy,” Science 305, 1007–1009 (2004). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/305/5686/1007.
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Swoger, J.

J. Swoger, P. Verveer, K. Greger, J. Huisken, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Multi-view image fusion improves resolution in three-dimensional microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 8029–8042 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-13-8029.
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J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. Stelzer, “Optical Sectioning Deep Inside Live Embryos by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy,” Science 305, 1007–1009 (2004). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/305/5686/1007.
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Travis, K.

K. Franze, J. Grosche, S. N. Skatchkov, S. Schinkinger, C. Foja, D. Schild, O. Uckermann, K. Travis, A. Reichenbach, and J. Guck, “Muller cells are living optical fibers in the vertebrate retina.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8287–8292 (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611180104.
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Trouve, A.

O. Renaud, J. Vina, Y. Yu, C. Machu, A. Trouve, H. Van der Voort, B. Chalmond, and S. Shorte, “High-resolution 3-D imaging of living cells in suspension using confocal axial tomography.” Biotechnol. J. 3, 53–62 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.200700188.
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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2117 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (743 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the OCR setup. (a) The OCR is mounted on an inverted microscope. SMF, single-mode fiber. (b) Detailed view of the dashed area indicated in (a). SMF1 is mounted in a ceramic ferrule (CF1). SMF2 is spliced with an offset to a dual-mode fiber (DMF) which is mounted in a second ferrule (CF2). Parts shaded in red form one static unit that can be rotated with respect to the rest of the system in a rotation mount (RM). The trapping and rotation of a cell can be imaged through a glass window (slide). (c) Microsopic image of an offset arc fusion splice (OAFS). Scale bar, 50µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field distributions and coupling efficiencies. (a) LP01 electric field distribution in SMF. Black circle indicates core boundary. (b) LP01 and (c) LP11 electric field distributions in fiber with larger core (DMF). (d) Coupling of SMF field distribution, offset by ρ, into DMF. (e) Calculated efficiencies for the coupling from SMF field distribution to the two DMF modes as a function of the transverse offset ρ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated and (b) measured beam intensity profile of a DMF excited at 3.2µm offset.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase contrast images of the optical rotation of a red blood cell in time steps of 200 ms. Images obtained while the dual-mode beam profile was turned by 90 degrees are marked. Scale bar, 10µm (Media 1).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Phase contrast images of the optical rotation of an HL60 cell in time steps of 320 ms. Images obtained during the rotation of the beam profile are marked. Scale bar, 10 µm (Media 2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical rotation of a small MCF-7 cell custer inside a microcapillary with rectangular cross section. Scale bar, 10µm.

Equations (4)

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E LP 01 = c 01 J 0 ( κ core 01 r ) for r a E LP 01 = c 01 K 0 ( κ clad 01 r ) for r > a
E LP 11 = c 11 J 1 ( κ core 11 r ) cos ( φ ) for r a E LP 11 = c 11 K 1 ( κ clad 11 r ) cos ( φ ) for r > a .
I = ( E LP 01 + E LP 11 ) 2 = E LP 01 2 + E LP 11 2 + 2 E LP 01 E LP 01 cos ( Δ β L ) ,
Δ β = β LP 01 β LP 11 ,

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