Abstract

We report a fully quantitative spectroscopy imaging instrument for wide area detection of early cancer (dysplasia). This instrument provides quantitative maps of tissue biochemistry and morphology, making it a potentially powerful surveillance tool for objective early cancer detection. We describe the design, construction, calibration, and first clinical application of this new system. We demonstrate its accuracy using physical tissue models. We validate its diagnostic ability on a resected colon adenoma, and demonstrate feasibility of in vivo imaging in the oral cavity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  20. G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, R. C. Thompson, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Liquid-crystal tunable filter spectral imaging for brain tumor demarcation," Appl. Opt. 46, 1896-1910 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Kalluri, and M. Zeisberg, "Fibroblasts in cancer," Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 392-401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Wities, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

2001 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

1999 (3)

M. F. Mitchell, S. B. Cantor, N. Ramanujam, G. Tortolero-Luna, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix," Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 462-470 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagase, and J. F. Woessner, "Matrix metalloproteinases," J. Biol. Chem. 274, 21491-21494 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis," Adv. Opt. Biopsy Opt. Mammography 838, 116-122 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

1988 (1)

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jobsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abele, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aerts, J. G. J. V.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonioli, D. A.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bard, M. P. L.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benamouzig, R.

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

Benavides, J. M.

J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharucha, H.

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantor, S. B.

M. F. Mitchell, S. B. Cantor, N. Ramanujam, G. Tortolero-Luna, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix," Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 462-470 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caughley, L. M.

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jobsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaussade, S.

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

Clayman, G.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, P. Cohen, F. Jobsis, and B. Schoener, "Intracellular oxidation-reduction states in vivo," Science 137, 499-508 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colclough, A. B.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Conn, R. L.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D. D.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Date, A.

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Veld, D. C. G.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Wities, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deckelbaum, L. I.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Deyra, J.

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

Dickson, K.

K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dinnen, J. S.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Duin, R. P. W.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Wities, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eakins, D.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Evans, D. M. D.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Feld, M. S.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiarman, G. S.

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Flewelling, R. F.

K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeberg, J. A.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, H.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuselier, T.

Galindo, L.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ganeshappa, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gebhart, S. C.

Georgakoudi, I.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, N.

S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

Gillenwater, A.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, H.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossage, K.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gradwell, E.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Grp, A.

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

Gupta, P. K.

S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

Haggitt, R. C.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, P. W.

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegt, V. N.

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S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Jacob, R.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

Jiang, C. S.

K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
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J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
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Johnson, T. M.

Kabani, S.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
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G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
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G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
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D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
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S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

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M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

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J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
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J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
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Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Majumder, S. K.

S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

Malpica, A.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
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J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Martin, A.

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

Martin, M. E.

T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
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J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
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McKinnon, N.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michaud, E.

T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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Milbourne, A.

J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
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Mirkovic, J.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
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Mitchell, M. F.

M. F. Mitchell, S. B. Cantor, N. Ramanujam, G. Tortolero-Luna, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix," Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 462-470 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Moes, C. J. M.

Mohanty, S. K.

S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

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J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
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J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
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Mueller, M. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
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Muller, M. G.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
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I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
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M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
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H. Nagase, and J. F. Woessner, "Matrix metalloproteinases," J. Biol. Chem. 274, 21491-21494 (1999).
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G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Newcombe, R.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Nguyen, F. T.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
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Osullivan, J. P.

S. M. Ismail, A. B. Colclough, J. S. Dinnen, D. Eakins, D. M. D. Evans, E. Gradwell, J. P. Osullivan, J. M. Summerell, and R. Newcombe, "Intrapathologist and Interpathologist Variation in Reporting Cervical Intra-Epithelial Neoplasia and Factors Associated with Disagreement," J. Pathol. 160, A176-A176 (1990).

Overholt, B. F.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis," Adv. Opt. Biopsy Opt. Mammography 838, 116-122 (1998).

Owen, D.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, J. L.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Pan, X. G.

T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panjehpour, M.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis," Adv. Opt. Biopsy Opt. Mammography 838, 116-122 (1998).

Park, S. Y.

J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
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Pikkula, B.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Price, R.

J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

M. F. Mitchell, S. B. Cantor, N. Ramanujam, G. Tortolero-Luna, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix," Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 462-470 (1999).
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Reid, B. J.

B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
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S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
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J. M. Benavides, S. Chang, S. Y. Park, R. Richards-Kortum, N. Mackinnon, C. MacAulay, A. Milbourne, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Multispectral digital colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical cancer," Opt. Express. 11, 1223-1236 (2003).
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M. F. Mitchell, S. B. Cantor, N. Ramanujam, G. Tortolero-Luna, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix," Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 462-470 (1999).
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A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
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D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
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J. A. Freeberg, D. M. Serachitopol, N. McKinnon, R. Price, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. MacAulay, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, and B. Pikkula, "Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034015 (2007).
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M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
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I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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K. T. Schomacker, T. M. Meese, C. S. Jiang, C. C. Abele, K. Dickson, S. T. Sum, and R. F. Flewelling, "Novel optical detection system for in vivo identification and localization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034009 (2006).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. C.

Thornton, C. M.

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tortolero-Luna, G.

M. F. Mitchell, S. B. Cantor, N. Ramanujam, G. Tortolero-Luna, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix," Obstet. Gynecol. 93, 462-470 (1999).
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Tunnell, J. W.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
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M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
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A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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Vanmarle, J.

Vanstaveren, H. J.

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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis," Adv. Opt. Biopsy Opt. Mammography 838, 116-122 (1998).

Wabuyele, M. B.

T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, "A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
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W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
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M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
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B. J. Reid, R. C. Haggitt, C. E. Rubin, G. Roth, C. M. Surawicz, G. Vanbelle, K. Lewin, W. M. Weinstein, D. A. Antonioli, H. Goldman, W. Macdonald, and D. Owen, "Observer Variation in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Barretts Esophagus," Hum. Pathol. 19, 166-178 (1988).
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G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Wities, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology," Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J. H.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncol. 44, 65-71 (2008).
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H. Nagase, and J. F. Woessner, "Matrix metalloproteinases," J. Biol. Chem. 274, 21491-21494 (1999).
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Yoon, H.

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

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R. Kalluri, and M. Zeisberg, "Fibroblasts in cancer," Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 392-401 (2006).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-514 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zonios, G.

Zuluaga, A.

D. L. Heintzelman, U. Utzinger, H. Fuchs, A. Zuluaga, K. Gossage, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, B. Kemp, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Optimal excitation wavelengths for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia using fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 103-113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Biopsy Opt. Mammography (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, and B. F. Overholt, "Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis," Adv. Opt. Biopsy Opt. Mammography 838, 116-122 (1998).

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. (1)

W. G. McCluggage, M. Y. Walsh, C. M. Thornton, P. W. Hamilton, A. Date, L. M. Caughley, and H. Bharucha, "Inter- and intra-observer variation in the histopathological reporting of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions using a modified Bethesda grading system," Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 105, 206-210 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chest (1)

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Sci. (1)

S. K. Majumder, S. K. Mohanty, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, D. K. Jain, and F. Khan, "A pilot study on the use of autofluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of the cancer of human oral cavity," Curr. Sci. 79, 1089-1094 (2000).

Dig. Dis. Sci. (1)

G. S. Fiarman, M. H. Nathanson, A. B. West, L. I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C. R. Kapadia, "Differences in Laser-Induced Autofluorescence between Adenomatous and Hyperplastic Polyps and Normal Colonic Mucosa by Confocal Microscopy," Dig. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261-1268 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. (1)

H. Yoon, A. Martin, R. Benamouzig, E. Longchampt, J. Deyra, S. Chaussade, and A. Grp, "Inter-observer agreement on histological diagnosis of colorectal polyps: the APACC study," Gastroenterol. Clin. Et Biol. 26, 220-224 (2002).

Gastroenterology (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
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Hum. Pathol. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). QSI instrumentation principle. Green beams are illumination and red beams are collection. Optics delivers a spot of light to the tissue surface. The spot is similar in diameter to that of an optical fiber contact probe. The area from which reflectance and fluorescence are collected is also similar. (b) Block diagram of the QSI instrument. (c) Schematic diagram of the optical head.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calibrated reflectance spectra (solid lines) measured from the same imaging position on different tissue phantoms. The best fit spectra using the approach of Zonios et al. are also plotted (dashed lines). The characteristic absorption bands of hemoglobin at 420nm, 540nm, and 580nm are clearly visible.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bulk fluorescence spectra (a, b, c) measured from the same imaging position on different tissue phantoms (as indicated in Table 2). The corresponding intrinsic fluorescence spectra extracted using the method of Müller et al. are also plotted (IFS). The dashed green spectrum is the fluorescence measured from furan in water without intralipid or hemoglobin present. It is nearly identical to the red, black, and blue dashed lines. Note that the IFS spectra and the spectrum of furan in water all overlap, as they should.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). White light image of ex vivo colon specimen. (b): Ex vivo colon pathology. The specimen is sectioned from the region indicated by the left red line in (a). Parameter maps of A, c Hb , and c Coll /c NADH are shown in (c)–(e). Maps can be compared to the picture in (a) by matching the coordinates with units in millimeters. (f): Diagnosis map with black normal and white cancerous tissue. The diagnosis using QSI is constant to the diagnosis using histopathology which indicates area below yellow line in (a) is cancerous.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). White light image of ventral tongue site with the boundaries, between hyperkeratosis and normal areas, delineated by the dashed yellow lines. The coordinates are in millimeters. Data in (b)–(d) can be compared to the picture in (a) by matching the coordinates. (b) A parameter. (c) α parameter. (d) c Coll /c NADH parameter.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Reflectance parameters measured from tissue phantoms. The uncertainty of each parameter is the standard deviation of values measured from all 441 pixels on the phantom. Phantoms labeled (a), (b), and (c) are included in Fig. 2.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fluorescence parameters measured from tissue phantoms. The measured furan concentration for 1% intralipid has been normalized to 0.25 and all other measured concentrations are normalized by the same factor.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ s ( λ ) = A ( λ λ 0 ) B ,
μ a ( λ ) = 0.23 c H b ( ( 1 α ) ε H b ( λ ) + α ε H b O 2 ( λ ) ) .
I data ( x , y , λ ) = Σ i = 1 2 c i ( x , y ) I basis i ( λ ) .

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