Abstract

Using water-assisted femtosecond laser machining, we fabricated electrospray nozzles on glass coverslips and on assembled microfluidic devices. Machining the nozzles after device assembly facilitated alignment of the nozzles over the microchannels. The basic nozzle design is a through-hole in the coverslip to pass liquids and a trough machined around the through-hole to confine the electrospray and prevent liquid from wicking across the glass surface. Electrospray from the nozzles was stable with and without pressure-driven flow applied and was evaluated using mass spectra of the peptide bradykinin.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. M. Lazar, J. Grym, and F. Foret, "Microfabricated devices: A new sample introduction approach to mass spectrometry," Mass Spectrom. Rev. 25, 573-594 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Koster and E. Verpoorte, "A decade of microfluidic analysis coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry: An overview," Lab Chip 7, 1394-1412 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1912-1914 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 605-612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, "Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates," Anal. Chem. 77, 5083-5088 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Lee, J. L. Bull, and A. J. Hunt, "Acoustic limitations on the efficiency of machining by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. An, J. D. Uram, E. C. Yusko, K. Ke, M. Mayer, and A. J. Hunt, "Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1153-1155 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, J. L. Bull, and A. J. Hunt, "Acoustic limitations on the efficiency of machining by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Koster and E. Verpoorte, "A decade of microfluidic analysis coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry: An overview," Lab Chip 7, 1394-1412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. M. Lazar, J. Grym, and F. Foret, "Microfabricated devices: A new sample introduction approach to mass spectrometry," Mass Spectrom. Rev. 25, 573-594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, "Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates," Anal. Chem. 77, 5083-5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Ramsey and J. M. Ramsey, "Generating electrospray from microchip devices using electroosmotic pumping," Anal. Chem. 69, 1174-1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adkin, P.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

An, R.

R. An, J. D. Uram, E. C. Yusko, K. Ke, M. Mayer, and A. J. Hunt, "Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1153-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brennen, R.

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

Bull, J. L.

S. Lee, J. L. Bull, and A. J. Hunt, "Acoustic limitations on the efficiency of machining by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, K.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choi, T. Y.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corso, T. N.

G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, A.

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobson, P.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dou, Y.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dou, Y. P.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dunayevskiy, Y. M.

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta, S. K.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Foret, F.

I. M. Lazar, J. Grym, and F. Foret, "Microfabricated devices: A new sample introduction approach to mass spectrometry," Mass Spectrom. Rev. 25, 573-594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, J. F.

Glezer, E. N.

Gong, Q.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Groisman, A.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grym, J.

I. M. Lazar, J. Grym, and F. Foret, "Microfabricated devices: A new sample introduction approach to mass spectrometry," Mass Spectrom. Rev. 25, 573-594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasselbrink, E. F.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, "Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates," Anal. Chem. 77, 5083-5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Her, T. H.

Hergenroder, R.

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Hunt, A. J.

R. An, J. D. Uram, E. C. Yusko, K. Ke, M. Mayer, and A. J. Hunt, "Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1153-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, J. L. Bull, and A. J. Hunt, "Acoustic limitations on the efficiency of machining by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, "Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates," Anal. Chem. 77, 5083-5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, D. J.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iga, Y.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, T.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1912-1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, S. C.

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y. Y.

Karger, B. L.

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, K.

R. An, J. D. Uram, E. C. Yusko, K. Ke, M. Mayer, and A. J. Hunt, "Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1153-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, "Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates," Anal. Chem. 77, 5083-5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killeen, K.

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. N.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleinfeld, D.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koster, S.

S. Koster and E. Verpoorte, "A decade of microfluidic analysis coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry: An overview," Lab Chip 7, 1394-1412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, D.

Lazar, I. M.

I. M. Lazar, J. Grym, and F. Foret, "Microfabricated devices: A new sample introduction approach to mass spectrometry," Mass Spectrom. Rev. 25, 573-594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J. L. Bull, and A. J. Hunt, "Acoustic limitations on the efficiency of machining by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. D.

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1912-1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Licklider, L.

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malik, A.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martyn, S.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

R. An, J. D. Uram, E. C. Yusko, K. Ke, M. Mayer, and A. J. Hunt, "Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1153-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

McGruer, N. E.

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mechref, Y.

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosavljevic, M.

Momma, C.

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nigge, W.

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1912-1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, M. V.

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paine, M.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pronko, P. P.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prosser, S. J.

G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsey, J. M.

R. S. Ramsey and J. M. Ramsey, "Generating electrospray from microchip devices using electroosmotic pumping," Anal. Chem. 69, 1174-1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, R. S.

R. S. Ramsey and J. M. Ramsey, "Generating electrospray from microchip devices using electroosmotic pumping," Anal. Chem. 69, 1174-1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rockett, P.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rudzinski, A.

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C. B.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, G. A.

G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R. K.

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sobek, D.

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, J.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Starkey, J. A.

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, R.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tai, Y. C.

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uram, J. D.

R. An, J. D. Uram, E. C. Yusko, K. Ke, M. Mayer, and A. J. Hunt, "Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1153-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Goor, T. V.

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verpoorte, E.

S. Koster and E. Verpoorte, "A decade of microfluidic analysis coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry: An overview," Lab Chip 7, 1394-1412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Alvensleben, F.

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, R. Stevens, A. Malik, P. Rockett, M. Paine, P. Adkin, S. Martyn, K. Smith, J. Stark, and P. Dobson, "High-aspect-ratio silica nozzle fabrication for nano-emitter electrospray applications," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1190-1193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Q.

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Y. Jiang, "Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1912-1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werlich, M.

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, Q.

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 1855-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, N. F.

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusko, E. C.

Zavracky, P. M.

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Z.

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

R. S. Ramsey and J. M. Ramsey, "Generating electrospray from microchip devices using electroosmotic pumping," Anal. Chem. 69, 1174-1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xue, F. Foret, Y. M. Dunayevskiy, P. M. Zavracky, N. E. McGruer, and B. L. Karger, "Multichannel microchip electrospray mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 69, 426-430 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Licklider, X. Q. Wang, A. Desai, Y. C. Tai, and T. D. Lee, "A micromachined chip-based electrospray source for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 367-375 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Schultz, T. N. Corso, S. J. Prosser, and S. Zhang, "A fully integrated monolithic microchip electrospray device for mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 72, 4058-4063 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Yin, K. Killeen, R. Brennen, D. Sobek, M. Werlich, and T. V. van de Goor, "Microfluidic chip for peptide analysis with an integrated HPLC column, sample enrichment column, and nanoelectrospray tip," Anal. Chem. 77, 527-533 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, "Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates," Anal. Chem. 77, 5083-5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhuang, J. A. Starkey, Y. Mechref, M. V. Novotny, and S. C. Jacobson, "Electrophoretic analysis of N-glycans on microfluidic devices," Anal. Chem. 79, 7170-7175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem.Int. Ed.

J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Label-free affinity assays by rapid detection of immune complexes in submicrometer pores," Angew. Chem.Int. Ed. 45, 2281-2285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 27-29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, "Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, J. L. Bull, and A. J. Hunt, "Acoustic limitations on the efficiency of machining by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

C. Momma, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, "Precise laser ablation with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 110, 15-19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. P. Dou, Y. Fang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Laser micro-hole drilling of soda-lime glass with femtosecond pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2465-2468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, D. Du, and R. K. Singh, "Thermophysical effects in laser processing of materials with picosecond and femtosecond pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6233-6240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, "Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4207-4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

S. Koster and E. Verpoorte, "A decade of microfluidic analysis coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry: An overview," Lab Chip 7, 1394-1412 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schilling, W. Nigge, A. Rudzinski, A. Neyer, and R. Hergenroder, "A new on-chip ESI nozzle for coupling of MS with microfluidic devices," Lab Chip 4, 220-224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mass Spectrom. Rev.

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J. D. Uram, K. Ke, A. J. Hunt, and M. Mayer, "Submicrometer pore-based characterization and quantification of antibody-virus interactions," Small 2, 967-972 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the laser machining procedure. Using a 1.3 NA objective, the laser is focused through a coverslip onto the glass/water interface on the side distal to the objective. First, a through-hole is drilled through the coverslip, followed by machining of a trough around the through-hole.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Schematic of the electrospray nozzle with typical dimensions. Scanning electron microscope images of the (a) top and (b) 30° side views of a nozzle machined in a glass coverslip.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Schematics of the top and side views of a microfluidic device with an integrated electrospray nozzle. (b). Schematic of the nozzle machining process on a microfluidic device with a temporary coverslip and water layer underneath the microfluidic device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Transmitted light image of an electrospray nozzle fabricated directly over a microchannel in an assembled microfluidic device. The image in (a) is a composite of two images taken at different focal planes. (b) Mass spectrum of bradykinin electrosprayed from the microfluidic device through the nozzle. The most intense peak at m/z = 530 is doubly charged bradykinin.

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