Abstract

We demonstrate folded waveguide ring resonators for biomolecular sensing. We show that extending the ring cavity length increases the resonator quality factor, and thereby enhances the sensor resolution and minimum level of detection, while at the same time relaxing the tolerance on the coupling conditions to provide stable and large resonance contrast. The folded spiral path geometry allows a 1.2 mm long ring waveguide to be enclosed in a 150 µm diameter sensor area. The spiral cavity resonator is used to monitor the streptavidin protein binding with a detection limit of ~3 pg/mm2, or a total mass of ~5 fg. The real time measurements are used to analyze the kinetics of biotin-streptavidin binding.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lazcka, F. J. Del Campo, and F. X. Muñoz, "Pathogen detection: A perspective of traditional methods and biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1205-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing," Opt. Express 15, 7610-7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen and M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon- on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Lett. 15, 10553-10561 (2007).

2006 (5)

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair, "Effects of fill fraction on the capture efficiency of nanoscale molecular transducers," Nanotechnology 17, 2442-2448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Karlsson, "SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas," J. Mol. Recognit. 17, 151-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

1998 (2)

B. J. Luff J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenback, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583-591 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Spinke, M. Liley and F.-J. Schmitt, "Molecular recognition at self-assembed monolayers: optimization of surface functionalization," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7012-7019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, J. P. Golden and F. S. Ligler, "A fiber optic biosensor: combination tapered fibers designed for improved signal acquisition," Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 249-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Lukosz, "Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Stenkamp,, R. E.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, J. P. Golden and F. S. Ligler, "A fiber optic biosensor: combination tapered fibers designed for improved signal acquisition," Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 249-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

Bishop, J.

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair, "Effects of fill fraction on the capture efficiency of nanoscale molecular transducers," Nanotechnology 17, 2442-2448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair, "Effects of fill fraction on the capture efficiency of nanoscale molecular transducers," Nanotechnology 17, 2442-2448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. T.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chagovetz, A.

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair, "Effects of fill fraction on the capture efficiency of nanoscale molecular transducers," Nanotechnology 17, 2442-2448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chodorow, M.

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

Del Campo, F. J.

O. Lazcka, F. J. Del Campo, and F. X. Muñoz, "Pathogen detection: A perspective of traditional methods and biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1205-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eccleston, J. F.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Golden, J. P.

G. P. Anderson, J. P. Golden and F. S. Ligler, "A fiber optic biosensor: combination tapered fibers designed for improved signal acquisition," Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 249-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Green, N. M.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Homer, M. L.

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hyre, D. E.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Janz, S.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson, "SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas," J. Mol. Recognit. 17, 151-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. H.

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen and M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon- on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Lett. 15, 10553-10561 (2007).

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ksendzov, A.

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazcka, O.

O. Lazcka, F. J. Del Campo, and F. X. Muñoz, "Pathogen detection: A perspective of traditional methods and biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1205-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Trong, I.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Lechuga, L. M.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ligler, F. S.

G. P. Anderson, J. P. Golden and F. S. Ligler, "A fiber optic biosensor: combination tapered fibers designed for improved signal acquisition," Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 249-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liley, M.

J. Spinke, M. Liley and F.-J. Schmitt, "Molecular recognition at self-assembed monolayers: optimization of surface functionalization," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7012-7019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Llobera, A

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, "Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Manfreda, A. M.

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merritt,, E. A.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Mischki, T.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, F. X.

O. Lazcka, F. J. Del Campo, and F. X. Muñoz, "Pathogen detection: A perspective of traditional methods and biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1205-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popat, K.C.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen and M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon- on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Lett. 15, 10553-10561 (2007).

Schacht, E.

Schmid, J.

Schmid, J. H.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, F.-J.

J. Spinke, M. Liley and F.-J. Schmitt, "Molecular recognition at self-assembed monolayers: optimization of surface functionalization," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7012-7019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sepulveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Shen, H.

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen and M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon- on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Lett. 15, 10553-10561 (2007).

Spinke, J.

J. Spinke, M. Liley and F.-J. Schmitt, "Molecular recognition at self-assembed monolayers: optimization of surface functionalization," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7012-7019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stayton, P. S.

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Stokes, L. F.

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen and M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon- on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Lett. 15, 10553-10561 (2007).

Xu, D.-X.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Schmid and B. Lamontagne, "High bandwidth SOI photonic wire ring resonators using MMI couplers," Opt. Express 15, 3149-3155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

O. Lazcka, F. J. Del Campo, and F. X. Muñoz, "Pathogen detection: A perspective of traditional methods and biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1205-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, J. P. Golden and F. S. Ligler, "A fiber optic biosensor: combination tapered fibers designed for improved signal acquisition," Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 249-256 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, "Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing," Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520-2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Spinke, M. Liley and F.-J. Schmitt, "Molecular recognition at self-assembed monolayers: optimization of surface functionalization," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7012-7019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mol. Recognit. (1)

R. Karlsson, "SPR for molecular interaction analysis: a review of emerging application areas," J. Mol. Recognit. 17, 151-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

J. Bishop, A. Chagovetz, and S. Blair, "Effects of fill fraction on the capture efficiency of nanoscale molecular transducers," Nanotechnology 17, 2442-2448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14, 907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne and J. H. Schmid, "Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response," Opt. Lett. 6, 596-598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Stokes, M. Chodorow and H. J. Shaw, "All-single-mode fiber resonator," Opt. Lett. 7, 288-290 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen and M. Qi, "Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon- on-insulator resonators and bends," Opt. Lett. 15, 10553-10561 (2007).

Protein Sci. (1)

D. E. Hyre, I. Le Trong, E. A. Merritt, J. F. Eccleston, N. M. Green, R. E.  Stenkamp, and P. S. Stayton, "Cooperative hydrogen bond interactions in the streptavidin biotin system," Protein Sci. 15, 459-467 (2006).

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

Other (4)

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, P. Waldron, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid and E. Post, "High Index Contrast Photonic Waveguide Components for Biological Sensing," Symposium "Biomedical and Clinical Sensors," paper # 2096, ECS 2006 Joint International Meeting, Oct. 29 - Nov. 3, 2006, Cancun, Mexico.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe and P. Cheben, "Thin silicon waveguides for biological and chemical sensing," Proc. SPIE Photonics West 2007, paper 6477-43, San Jose, CA, Jan. 20-25, 2007.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of optical waveguides, (Academic Press, Elsevier 2006) p. 199.

J. Št??pánek, H. Vaisocherová and M. Piliarik, "Molecular interactions in SPR sensors," Surface Plasmon Resonance based Sensors, J. Homola, ed., Springer Ser Chem Sens Biosens 4, 69-91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Cross section of a 0.26 µm × 0.45 µm SOI photonic wire waveguide, and the corresponding electric field distribution for the TM polarization; (b) Line plot across the dashed line in (a); (c) Sensor response in term of the effective index change Δneff due to a 4 nm organic layer (n = 1.5) for the TE and TM polarizations on a native silicon surface, and the response on a surface with 5 nm of capping oxide for TM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of sensors made of (a) a race-track cavity ring; and (b) a spiral cavity ring; (c) Transmission spectra for the R5 and R200 ring resonators under different matching conditions. R5 ring: t=α (solid blue line), t = 0.99α (magenta symbols). R200 ring: t=α (solid red line), t = 0.99α (green symbols).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Quality factor Q as a function of the cavity length L for four matching conditions t=(1, 0.99, 0.95)α; (b) Resonance contrast as a function of the cavity length L for the corresponding matching conditions.; (c) Quality factor Q as a function of the cavity length L for t = 0.707 and a loss factor of -3 dB/cm (blue line) and -22 dB/cm (magenta line). The symbols are the measured Q values for the simple race-track ring (L = 336 µm) and the spiral ring (L = 1.27 mm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top view optical images of the fabricated silicon wire ring resonators with the sensing windows opened in the SU8 layer. (a) Simple race-track ring with L = 336 µm; (b) Spiral ring with an MMI coupler and L = 1.27 mm; (c) Switch-back ring with a directional coupler.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured transmission spectra for the simple race-track ring (blues line) and the spiral ring (magenta line), which are shown in Fig. 4(a, b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Measured spiral ring resonator resonance wavelength shift Δλ as a function of time during PBS and streptavidin exposure. During this experiment, the streptavidin concentration was increased from 0.1 µg ml-1 to 1 µg ml-1 and then to 10 µg ml-1, with a corresponding increase in the signal slope; (b) Measured transmission spectra at the following time: 0, 100, 300 and 400 sec.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured molecular binding signal in terms of surface mass density as a function of molecular exposure time. The data are converted from the results shown in Fig. 6(a), and the insert shows the data for the first 40 sec.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Resonator figures-of-merit for the R5 and R200 resonators under different α and t matching conditions, assuming a cavity loss of 3 dB/cm.

Equations (6)

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I = [ α 2 2 α t cos θ + t 2 1 2 α t cos θ + α 2 t 2 ]
Q λ Δ λ FWHM = π n g L λ [ arccos ( 2 α t 1 + α 2 t 2 ) ] 1
Q π n g L λ α t 1 α t
Δ λ = λ Δ n eff n g
d B dt = κ a C i ( R T B ) κ d B
d C i dt = 1 h i ( κ m ( C T C i ) d B dt )

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