Abstract

We introduce a novel single-photon sensitive photodetection method of analog single-photon counting (SPC) for the application of high-speed scanning microscopy that requires high measurement speed and wide dynamic range for the photodetector. This scheme is based on analog electronic circuits which can perform proper differentiation and integration operations before and after discrimination of the analog signal from the photomultiplier tube (PMT), respectively. In spite of its simpler implementation, our analog SPC scheme exhibits good sensitivity and operation stability. Related with the dynamic range, the maximum count rate of our analog SPC is significantly improved due to the fast operation of the analog circuitry. This characteristic of the higher counting rate makes this scheme very suitable for high-speed scanning microscopy. It has also been demonstrated that the afterpulsing problem of an analog-mode PMT is the major noise source that degrades the image quality in the application of scanning microscopy, and our SPC scheme successfully neutralizes this kind of impulse noises to obtain a nearly shot-noise-limited imaging performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (2)

2006 (1)

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, "Methods of sinlge-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, J. M. Martinis, and A. V. Sergienko, "Demonstration of a low-noise near-infrared photon counter with multiphoton discrimination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 791-793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy," Science 266, 1018-1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balagura, V.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, C.

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buzhan, P.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, D. T.

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy," Science 266, 1018-1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danilov, M.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolgoshein, B.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Filatov, L.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, "Methods of sinlge-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garutti, E.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greuter, U.

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groll, M.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hänninen, P.

Ilyin, A.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kantserov, V.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaplin, V.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karakash, A.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kayumov, F.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klemin, S.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korbel, V.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinis, J. M.

A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, J. M. Martinis, and A. V. Sergienko, "Demonstration of a low-noise near-infrared photon counter with multiphoton discrimination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 791-793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, H.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, J. M. Martinis, and A. V. Sergienko, "Demonstration of a low-noise near-infrared photon counter with multiphoton discrimination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 791-793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizuk, R.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, "Methods of sinlge-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgunov, V.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, J. M. Martinis, and A. V. Sergienko, "Demonstration of a low-noise near-infrared photon counter with multiphoton discrimination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 791-793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy," Science 266, 1018-1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikov, E.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pakhlov, P.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popova, E.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rusinov, V.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlumpf, N.

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sefkow, F.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, J. M. Martinis, and A. V. Sergienko, "Demonstration of a low-noise near-infrared photon counter with multiphoton discrimination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 791-793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soini, J.

Song, M.

Soukka, J.

Tarkovsky, E.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, I.

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tisa, S.

Tosi, A.

Virkki, A.

Won, E.

Yoon, T. H.

Zappa, F.

Zare, R. N.

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy," Science 266, 1018-1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, J. M. Martinis, and A. V. Sergienko, "Demonstration of a low-noise near-infrared photon counter with multiphoton discrimination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 791-793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluorescence (1)

C.  Buehler, K. H.  Kim, U.  Greuter, N.  Schlumpf, and P. T. C.  So, "Single-Photon Counting Multicolor Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscope," J. Fluorescence 15, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A (1)

B.  Dolgoshein, V.  Balagura, P.  Buzhan, M.  Danilov, L.  Filatov, E.  Garutti, M.  Groll, A.  Ilyin, V.  Kantserov, V.  Kaplin, A.  Karakash, F.  Kayumov, S.  Klemin, V.  Korbel, H.  Meyer, R.  Mizuk, V.  Morgunov, E.  Novikov, P.  Pakhlov, E.  Popova, V.  Rusinov, F.  Sefkow, E.  Tarkovsky, and I.  Tikhomirov, Calice/SiPM Collaboration, "Status report on silicon photomultiplier development and its applications," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A  563, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, "Methods of sinlge-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3597-3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy," Science 266, 1018-1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

Hamamatsu PhotonicsK.K. , Photomultiplier Tubes - Basics and Applications 3rd Ed., http://sales.hamamatsu.com/assets/pdf/catsandguides/PMT_handbook_v3aE.pdf.

Standford Research Systems, SR400 - Gated Photon Counter (2-channel),http://www.thinksrs.com/downloads/PDFs/Catalog/SR400c.pdf.

Hamamatsu PhotonicsK.K. , Photon Counting Using Photomultiplier Tubes, http://sales.hamamatsu.com/assets/applications/ETD/PhotonCounting_TPHO9001E04.pdf.

J. B. Pawley ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy 3rd Ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics, Channel Photomultipliers - New Technology for More Accurate and Efficient Photon Detection,http://optoelectronics.perkinelmer.com/content/WhitePapers/WTP_CPMPhotonCounting.pdf.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the conventional digital SPC.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of our analog SPC and signal waveforms at marked points.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Single-photon responses measured at the input of the comparator in DC- and AC-coupled cases (a), and the calculated output durations as a function of input pulse amplitude for the comparator (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output voltage of the analog SPC, V spc and the calculated stability gain as functions of the normalized average pulse height, V anorm .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized probability density functions as functions of pulse heights for the analog-mode PMT (a) and the analog SPC (b), respectively. The insets are displayed in semi-logarithm scales.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Oscilloscope trace captured in the persistence display mode (Left) and the corresponding vertical histogram (Right) of the analog SPC output.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured photon rate as a function of the light power (a) and the corresponding linearity error as a function of the measured photon rate (b).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Time-domain waveforms (a), the corresponding images (b), and the amplitude histograms (c) for the analog SPC (Left column) and the analog mode PMT (Right column).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SNR (solid lines) and SNPR4 (dashed lines) curves for the analog SPC (-▪-), analog mode (-▴-) and the theoretical Poisson distribution (—), respectively.

Equations (7)

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ε M N N = N · M · Δ t N = M M max
Δ f < 1 2 π R C
G s t a b Δ V p a V p a Δ V spc V spc
G stab = Δ V norm a V norm a Δ V spc V spc = V spc V norm a ( d V spc d V norm a ) .
M e . m . = 1 5 ( γ Δ t )
10 n = Ω m P n ( v n ) d v n .
SNR S { + ( v n s ) 2 P n ( v n ) d v n } .

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