Abstract

A simple and robust method is presented for the construction of 3-dimensional crystals from silica and polystyrene microspheres. The crystals are suitable for use as templates in the production of three-dimensional photonic band gap (PBG) materials. Manipulation of the microspheres was achieved using a dynamic holographic assembler (DHA) consisting of computer controlled holographic optical tweezers. Attachment of the microspheres was achieved by adjusting their colloidal interactions during assembly. The method is demonstrated by constructing a variety of 3-dimensional crystals using spheres ranging in size from 3 µm down to 800 nm. A major advantage of the technique is that it may be used to build structures that cannot be made using self-assembly. This is illustrated through the construction of crystals in which line defects have been deliberately included, and by building simple cubic structures.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria and P. V. Braun, "Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals," Nature Photonics 2, 52-56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. W. Tavacoli, P. J. Dowding and A. F. Routh, "The polymer and salt induced aggregation of silica particles," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 293, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Erenso, A. Shulman, J. Curtis and S. Elrod, "Formation of synthetic structures with micron size silica beads using optical tweezer," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1529-1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne and F. Garcia-Santamaria, "Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: State of the art," Adv. Mater. 18, 2665-2678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wu, J. Serbin and M. Gu, "Two-photon polymerisation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (6)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Woldeyohannes and S. John, "Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge: A qubit for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5046-5068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Busch and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E. 58, 3896- 3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Jenkins and M. Snowden, "Depletion flocculation in colloidal dispersions," Adv. Colloid Int. Sci. 68, 57-96 (1996).

1992 (1)

T. Cosgrove, T. M. Obey and K. Ryan, "Depletion layer measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance for silica dispersions with nonadsorbing poly(styrene-sulfonate," Colloids Surf. 65, 1-7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, R.

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belmonte, M.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Braun, P. V.

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria and P. V. Braun, "Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals," Nature Photonics 2, 52-56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne and F. Garcia-Santamaria, "Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: State of the art," Adv. Mater. 18, 2665-2678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E. 58, 3896- 3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carberry, D.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clare, H.

P. Jordan, H. Clare, J. Leach, J. Cooper and M. Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 627-632 (2004).

Cooper, J.

Cosgrove, T.

T. Cosgrove, T. M. Obey and K. Ryan, "Depletion layer measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance for silica dispersions with nonadsorbing poly(styrene-sulfonate," Colloids Surf. 65, 1-7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

Curtis, J.

D. Erenso, A. Shulman, J. Curtis and S. Elrod, "Formation of synthetic structures with micron size silica beads using optical tweezer," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1529-1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dowding, P. J.

J. W. Tavacoli, P. J. Dowding and A. F. Routh, "The polymer and salt induced aggregation of silica particles," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 293, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elrod, S.

D. Erenso, A. Shulman, J. Curtis and S. Elrod, "Formation of synthetic structures with micron size silica beads using optical tweezer," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1529-1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erenso, D.

D. Erenso, A. Shulman, J. Curtis and S. Elrod, "Formation of synthetic structures with micron size silica beads using optical tweezer," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1529-1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

Fleming, J. G.

Frandsen, L. H.

Garcia-Santamaria, F.

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria and P. V. Braun, "Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals," Nature Photonics 2, 52-56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne and F. Garcia-Santamaria, "Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: State of the art," Adv. Mater. 18, 2665-2678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

Gu, M.

S. H. Wu, J. Serbin and M. Gu, "Two-photon polymerisation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harpoth, A.

Ibisate, M.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. C.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, P.

P. Jenkins and M. Snowden, "Depletion flocculation in colloidal dispersions," Adv. Colloid Int. Sci. 68, 57-96 (1996).

Jensen, J. S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

M. Woldeyohannes and S. John, "Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge: A qubit for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5046-5068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E. 58, 3896- 3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, P.

Ju, Y. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. B.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

Kwon, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laczik, Z. J.

Ladavac, K.

Leach, J.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, H. Clare, J. Leach, J. Cooper and M. Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 627-632 (2004).

J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper and Z. J. Laczik, "3D manipulation of particles into crystal structures using holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Express 12, 220-226 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-220.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

Lin, S.-Y.

Lopez, C.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meseguer, F.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miguez, H.

N. Tetreault, H. Miguez and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miles, M.

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

Miles, M. J.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H. T.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Obey, T. M.

T. Cosgrove, T. M. Obey and K. Ryan, "Depletion layer measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance for silica dispersions with nonadsorbing poly(styrene-sulfonate," Colloids Surf. 65, 1-7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tetreault, H. Miguez and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, H. Clare, J. Leach, J. Cooper and M. Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 627-632 (2004).

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, J. Cooper and Z. J. Laczik, "Assembly of 3-dimensional structures using programmable holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Express 12, 5475-5480 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5475.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

Park, H. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinne, S. A.

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria and P. V. Braun, "Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals," Nature Photonics 2, 52-56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne and F. Garcia-Santamaria, "Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: State of the art," Adv. Mater. 18, 2665-2678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robert, D.

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

Robert, D. J.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roichman, Y.

Routh, A. F.

J. W. Tavacoli, P. J. Dowding and A. F. Routh, "The polymer and salt induced aggregation of silica particles," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 293, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, K.

T. Cosgrove, T. M. Obey and K. Ryan, "Depletion layer measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance for silica dispersions with nonadsorbing poly(styrene-sulfonate," Colloids Surf. 65, 1-7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

S. H. Wu, J. Serbin and M. Gu, "Two-photon polymerisation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, N.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shulman, A.

D. Erenso, A. Shulman, J. Curtis and S. Elrod, "Formation of synthetic structures with micron size silica beads using optical tweezer," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1529-1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, O.

Sinclair, G.

Snowden, M.

P. Jenkins and M. Snowden, "Depletion flocculation in colloidal dispersions," Adv. Colloid Int. Sci. 68, 57-96 (1996).

Soljacic, M.

Tavacoli, J. W.

J. W. Tavacoli, P. J. Dowding and A. F. Routh, "The polymer and salt induced aggregation of silica particles," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 293, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tetreault, N.

N. Tetreault, H. Miguez and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urquia, A.

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whyte, G.

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

Woldeyohannes, M.

M. Woldeyohannes and S. John, "Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge: A qubit for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5046-5068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. H.

S. H. Wu, J. Serbin and M. Gu, "Two-photon polymerisation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. K.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, M. F.

Yu, G. H.

Adv. Colloid Int. Sci. (1)

P. Jenkins and M. Snowden, "Depletion flocculation in colloidal dispersions," Adv. Colloid Int. Sci. 68, 57-96 (1996).

Adv. Mater. (3)

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne and F. Garcia-Santamaria, "Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: State of the art," Adv. Mater. 18, 2665-2678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tetreault, H. Miguez and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquia, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer and C. Lopez, "Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures," Adv. Mater. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. (1)

T. Cosgrove, T. M. Obey and K. Ryan, "Depletion layer measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance for silica dispersions with nonadsorbing poly(styrene-sulfonate," Colloids Surf. 65, 1-7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eng. Asp. (1)

J. W. Tavacoli, P. J. Dowding and A. F. Routh, "The polymer and salt induced aggregation of silica particles," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 293, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

D. Erenso, A. Shulman, J. Curtis and S. Elrod, "Formation of synthetic structures with micron size silica beads using optical tweezer," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1529-1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, H. Clare, J. Leach, J. Cooper and M. Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 627-632 (2004).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Gibson, D. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. J. Robert, M. J. Miles and M. Padgett, "Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 044,009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

S. H. Wu, J. Serbin and M. Gu, "Two-photon polymerisation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 181, 1-11 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria and P. V. Braun, "Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals," Nature Photonics 2, 52-56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, J. Cooper and Z. J. Laczik, "3D manipulation of particles into crystal structures using holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Express 12, 220-226 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-220.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, J. Cooper and Z. J. Laczik, "Assembly of 3-dimensional structures using programmable holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Express 12, 5475-5480 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5475.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Roichman and D. G. Grier, "Holographic assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures," Opt. Express 13, 5434-5439 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5434.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Agarwal, K. Ladavac, Y. Roichman, G. H. Yu, C. M. Lieber and D. G. Grier, "Manipulation and assembly of nanowires with holographic optical traps," Opt. Express 13, 8906-8912 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-22-8906.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Whyte, G. Gibson, J. Leach, M. Padgett, D. Robert and M. Miles, "An optical trapped microhand for manipulating micron-sized objects," Opt. Express 14, 12,497-12,502 (2006). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-25-12497.
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harpoth, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, "Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60 degrees bend obtained utilizing topology optimization," Opt. Express 12, 5916-5921 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Woldeyohannes and S. John, "Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge: A qubit for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5046-5068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

K. Busch and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E. 58, 3896- 3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. J. Shaw, Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry, 4th ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1992).

R. K. Iler, The Chemistry of Silica: Solubility, Polymerization, Colloid and Surface Properties, and Biochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2274 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2638 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The sample cell used for the production of crystals made from silica and polystyrene spheres. The production area is shown by the red square. The wedges, shown in blue, are used to limit the diffusion and circulation of the PSS solution and microspheres.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The sample geometry used to build crystals. The trapping beam is incident from below. The sample is illuminated from above for conventional imaging or from below for fluorescence imaging. The camera is located below the sample. (b) The letters “DHA” constructed from 2 µm diameter silica spheres.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The first layer, (111) plane, of an FCC crystal templatemade from 3 µm diameter, fluorescent silica spheres. A single, out of focus, particle is visible in the second layer. (b) The first and second layers of the same crystal, showing a line defect along one of the in-plane [110] directions. (c) The final structure showing all three layers but focussing on the third. (a) and (b) are fluorescence images while (c) is a conventional image. A video showing a through-focus sequence is available online (Media 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The first and second layers of an FCC crystal template made from 3 µm diameter polystyrene spheres. A line-defect containing a 60° bend is present, highlighted in red. (b) The same structure slightly defocussed to show the line-defect more clearly. (c) The final crystal, focussing on the third layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of a simple cubic structure constructed from 3 µm diameter fluorescent silica spheres: (a) the first layer and (b) the partially constructed second layer. A video of the completed 3×3×3 crystal is available online (Media 2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

An FCC crystal constructed from 2 µm diameter non-fluorescent silica micro-spheres. In this case, the crystal contains a channel running in an out-of-plane [110] direction. The top images are taken from the microscope, focussing on (a) the first layer, (b) the second layer and (c) the third layer. The illustrations beneath are to aid the reader.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A 3×3×2 simple cubic structure assembled out of 800 nm diameter silica spheres. (a) The first layer of the crystal. (b) The crystal during construction of the second layer; the right hand column is incomplete.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The minimum concentration of PSS required for reproducible adhesion of each size of sphere. The concentrations appear to be independent of the type of sphere used.

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