Abstract

It has been shown that the mitochondria are the dominant source of large-angle light scattering from human cells. In the limit of small mitochondria, we show that the large-angle (isotropic) light scattering of mitochondria may be analyzed and simulated with an adaptation of classical X-ray diffraction theory. In addition, we show that this approach may be extended to the case of anisotropic scatter. These results enable the rapid simulation and analysis of mitochondrial scattering patterns and allow the determination of some aspects of cell structure directly from experimental scattering patterns.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

L. J. Garcia-Rodriguez, "Appendix 1. Basic properties of mitochondria," Methods Cell Biology 80, 809-812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoppins, L. Lackner, and J. Nunnari, "The Machines that Divide and Fuse Mitochondria," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76, 751-780 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-T. Su, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. Backhouse, "2D light scattering patterns of mitochondria in single cells," Opt. Express 15, 10562-10575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

B. Shao, J. S. Jaffe, M. Chachisvilis, and S. C. Esener, "Angular resolved light scattering for discriminating among marine picoplankton: modeling and experimental measurements," Opt. Express 14, 12473-12484 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilarski and C. Backhouse, "A method for cytometric image parameterization," Opt. Express 14, 12720-12743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Brandon, P. Baldi, and D. C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial mutations in cancer," Oncogene 25, 4647-4662 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

P. L. Gourley and R. K. Naviaux, "Optical Phenotyping of Human Mitochondria in a Biocavity Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 818-826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, "Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidativestress- induced mitochondrial swelling," Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. S. Modica-Napolitano and K. Singh, "Mitochondria as targets for detection and treatment of cancer," Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 4, 1-19 (2004).
[PubMed]

Q2. K. Singh, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "Analysis of Cellular Structure by Light Scattering Measurements in a New Cytometer Design Based on a Liquid-Core Waveguide," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 151, 10-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, "Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities," Science 300, 1419-1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Gourley, "Biocavity laser for high-speed cell and tumour biology," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 36, R228-R239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (3)

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cells: finite-difference time-domain simulations and goniometric measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 3651-3661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Proffen and R. B. Neder, "DISCUS: A program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation - update," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 838-839 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse," Science 283, 1482-1488 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

T. Proffen and R. B. Neder, "DISCUS: A program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 171-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. B. Neder and T. Proffen, "Teaching diffraction with the aid of computer simulations," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 29, 727-735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. C. Wallace, "Diseases of the mitochondrial DNA," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 61, 1175-1212 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alimova, A.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backhouse, C.

Backhouse, C. J.

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. K. Singh, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "Analysis of Cellular Structure by Light Scattering Measurements in a New Cytometer Design Based on a Liquid-Core Waveguide," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 151, 10-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

M. Brandon, P. Baldi, and D. C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial mutations in cancer," Oncogene 25, 4647-4662 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, K. E.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, T.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, C. E.

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, "Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidativestress- induced mitochondrial swelling," Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brandon, M.

M. Brandon, P. Baldi, and D. C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial mutations in cancer," Oncogene 25, 4647-4662 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buddhiwant, P.

N. Ghosh, P. Buddhiwant, A. Uppal, K. Majumder, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, "Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084101 (3 pages) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, D. J.

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, "Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidativestress- induced mitochondrial swelling," Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capjack, C.

X.-T. Su, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. Backhouse, "2D light scattering patterns of mitochondria in single cells," Opt. Express 15, 10562-10575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. K. Singh, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "Analysis of Cellular Structure by Light Scattering Measurements in a New Cytometer Design Based on a Liquid-Core Waveguide," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 151, 10-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capjack, C. E.

C. Liu, C. E. Capjack, and W. Rozmus, "3-D simulation of light scattering from biological cells and cell differentiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014007 (12 pages) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carrington, W.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chachisvilis, M.

Chen, K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cipolloni, P. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, R. G.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

Dunn, A.

Eick, A. A.

Elser, V.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esener, S. C.

Fang, H.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fay, F. S.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fogarty, K. E.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, "Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidativestress- induced mitochondrial swelling," Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. D.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

Gao, M.

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, "Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities," Science 300, 1419-1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Rodriguez, L. J.

L. J. Garcia-Rodriguez, "Appendix 1. Basic properties of mitochondria," Methods Cell Biology 80, 809-812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, N.

N. Ghosh, P. Buddhiwant, A. Uppal, K. Majumder, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, "Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084101 (3 pages) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M. J.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gourley, C. R.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gourley, P. L.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gourley and R. K. Naviaux, "Optical Phenotyping of Human Mitochondria in a Biocavity Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 818-826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gourley, "Biocavity laser for high-speed cell and tumour biology," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 36, R228-R239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

N. Ghosh, P. Buddhiwant, A. Uppal, K. Majumder, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, "Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084101 (3 pages) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, E. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hendricks, J. K.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

Hoppins, S.

S. Hoppins, L. Lackner, and J. Nunnari, "The Machines that Divide and Fuse Mitochondria," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76, 751-780 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffe, J. S.

Johnson, T. M.

Katz, A.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, P. H.

Kim, Y. L.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimerer, L. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lackner, L.

S. Hoppins, L. Lackner, and J. Nunnari, "The Machines that Divide and Fuse Mitochondria," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76, 751-780 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lifshitz, L. M.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. K. Singh, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "Analysis of Cellular Structure by Light Scattering Measurements in a New Cytometer Design Based on a Liquid-Core Waveguide," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 151, 10-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, C. E. Capjack, and W. Rozmus, "3-D simulation of light scattering from biological cells and cell differentiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014007 (12 pages) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, I. K.

Majumder, K.

N. Ghosh, P. Buddhiwant, A. Uppal, K. Majumder, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, "Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084101 (3 pages) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maltsev, V. P.

McCormick, S. A.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, A. E.

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modica-Napolitano, J. S.

J. S. Modica-Napolitano and K. Singh, "Mitochondria as targets for detection and treatment of cancer," Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 4, 1-19 (2004).
[PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Nagahara, L. A.

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, "Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities," Science 300, 1419-1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naviaux, R. K.

P. L. Gourley and R. K. Naviaux, "Optical Phenotyping of Human Mitochondria in a Biocavity Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 818-826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neder, R. B.

T. Proffen and R. B. Neder, "DISCUS: A program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation - update," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 838-839 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Proffen and R. B. Neder, "DISCUS: A program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 171-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Neder and T. Proffen, "Teaching diffraction with the aid of computer simulations," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 29, 727-735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neiman, A. M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunnari, J.

S. Hoppins, L. Lackner, and J. Nunnari, "The Machines that Divide and Fuse Mitochondria," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76, 751-780 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ollero, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, H. S.

N. Ghosh, P. Buddhiwant, A. Uppal, K. Majumder, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, "Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084101 (3 pages) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. K.

Pilarski, P.

Pinton, P.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozzan, T.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proffen, T.

T. Proffen and R. B. Neder, "DISCUS: A program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation - update," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 838-839 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Proffen and R. B. Neder, "DISCUS: A program for diffuse scattering and defect-structure simulation," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 30, 171-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Neder and T. Proffen, "Teaching diffraction with the aid of computer simulations," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 29, 727-735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rizzuto, R.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rozmus, W.

X.-T. Su, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. Backhouse, "2D light scattering patterns of mitochondria in single cells," Opt. Express 15, 10562-10575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. K. Singh, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "Analysis of Cellular Structure by Light Scattering Measurements in a New Cytometer Design Based on a Liquid-Core Waveguide," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 151, 10-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, C. E. Capjack, and W. Rozmus, "3-D simulation of light scattering from biological cells and cell differentiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014007 (12 pages) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, E.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savage, H. E.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sayre, D.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sem???yanov, K. A.

Shah, M. K.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shao, B.

Shapiro, D.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

Singh, K.

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q2. K. Singh, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "Analysis of Cellular Structure by Light Scattering Measurements in a New Cytometer Design Based on a Liquid-Core Waveguide," IEE Proc.-Nanobiotechnol. 151, 10-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Modica-Napolitano and K. Singh, "Mitochondria as targets for detection and treatment of cancer," Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 4, 1-19 (2004).
[PubMed]

Soini, J. T.

Su, X.

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.-T.

Tarasov, P. A.

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, "Biological imaging by soft X-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuft, R. A.

R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, W. Carrington, F. S. Fay, K. E. Fogarty, L. M. Lifshitz, R. A. Tuft, and T. Pozzan, "Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses," Science 280, 1763- 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulanowski, Z.

Uppal, A.

N. Ghosh, P. Buddhiwant, A. Uppal, K. Majumder, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, "Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084101 (3 pages) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vartanyants, I.

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, "Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities," Science 300, 1419-1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, E.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, D. C.

M. Brandon, P. Baldi, and D. C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial mutations in cancer," Oncogene 25, 4647-4662 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse," Science 283, 1482-1488 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Wallace, "Diseases of the mitochondrial DNA," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 61, 1175-1212 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wilson, J. D.

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, "Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidativestress- induced mitochondrial swelling," Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Wilson,W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, "Index-of-refraction-dependent subcellular light scattering observed with organelle-specific dyes," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010 (10 pages) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, M. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, "Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities," Science 300, 1419-1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuo, J. M.

J. M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, and L. A. Nagahara, "Atomic resolution imaging of a carbon nanotube from diffraction intensities," Science 300, 1419-1421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, "Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data," Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2)

S. Hoppins, L. Lackner, and J. Nunnari, "The Machines that Divide and Fuse Mitochondria," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76, 751-780 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Wallace, "Diseases of the mitochondrial DNA," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 61, 1175-1212 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

P. L. Gourley, J. K. Hendricks, A. E. McDonald, R. G. Copeland, K. E. Barrett, C. R. Gourley, and R. K. Naviaux, "Ultrafast nanolaser flow device for detecting cancer in single cells," Biomed. Microdevices 7, 331-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, "Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidativestress- induced mitochondrial swelling," Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry A (1)

Q1. K. Singh, X. Su, C. Liu, C. Capjack, W. Rozmus, and C. J. Backhouse, "A Miniaturized Wide-Angle 2D Cytometer," Cytometry A 69A, 307-315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Expert Rev. Mol. Med. (1)

J. S. Modica-Napolitano and K. Singh, "Mitochondria as targets for detection and treatment of cancer," Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 4, 1-19 (2004).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of how changes to the spatial distribution, ρ(r), (d) through (f), impact the spacing of features within two-dimensional scattering patterns, I(S), (a) through (c), in X-ray scattering. As the y-axis spacing between atoms decreases by a factor of two and three in panels (e) and (f), y-axis spacing in the reciprocal plot increases by a factor of two and three in panels (b) and (c). Physical and Fourier dimensions are listed in Å and Å -1 on the plots above. Data was generated using DISCUS, the Fourier-transform based scattering simulator of Proffen and Neder [28, 37, 38].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the scattering simulation process. The ray so indicates the direction of incident light, while the segment (s-r n ) describes the vector between a scatterer r n and a point s on the receptive filed. Ro and Ri indicate the inner and outer radius of the scattering distribution ρ(r).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two angular point-spread functions M(θ) for individual scatterers: pure isotropic radiation (left, characteristic of 100nm diameter mitochondria (much smaller than λ)), and anisotropic scatter (right, characteristic of 500–1000nm diameter mitochondria)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A comparison of feature spacing between the experimental cytometry data for two Raji cells (A and B, Ro ≅8.0µm, Ri ≅4.0µm, each with an estimated hundreds of mt), the mtPatterns algorithm (C, Ro =8.0µm, Ri =4.0µm, #mt=300), and a re-processed version of the FDTD results of Su et al.’s Fig. 5(d) [5] (D, Ro =8.0µm, Ri =4.0µm, #mt=300) over a 30° range in ϕ and θ, located in the side-scatter region. The point/line overlays in the bottom row indicate blob center points/spacing gaps used in blob spacing calculations. The horizontal axis corresponds to changes in θ, vertical to changes in ϕ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A series of sample images generated using the mtPatterns algorithm. Images are shown for both uniform scattering (row A) and scattering using a complex point-spread function (row B, as per Fig. 3, right). Increased scatterer spacing can be seen to lead to a decrease in scattering pattern blob spacing (e.g. 2A, 3A). In terms of scattering blob placement and spacing, there is little difference between uniform (A) and non-uniform (B) mitochondrial scattering. To allow visual comparison, all images have been normalized with respect to the same minimum and maximum intensity values (i.e. 0-255), and cover the same solid angle (77.3°–106.7° in θ and ϕ). Forward scatter is toward the right.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The mtPatterns Algorithm

Equations (6)

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A ( s ) = n = 1 N [ cos ( 2 π · s r n ) i sin ( 2 π · s r n ) ]
A ( S ) = n = 1 N exp { 2 π i ( S · r n ) }
A ( S ) = 0 ρ ( r ) exp { 2 π i ( S · r ) } d v r
ρ ( r ) = 0 A ( S ) exp { 2 π i ( S · r ) } d v s
A true ( S ) = F { ρ ( r ) * m ( r ) }
A true ( S ) = A ( S ) M ( S )

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