Abstract

Raman scattering provides valuable biochemical and molecular markers for studying bone tissue composition with use in predicting fracture risk in osteoporosis. Raman tomography can image through a few centimeters of tissue but is limited by low spatial resolution. X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging can provide high-resolution image-guidance of the Raman spectroscopic characterization, which enhances the quantitative recovery of the Raman signals, and this technique provides additional information to standard imaging methods. This hypothesis was tested in data measured from Teflon® tissue phantoms and from a canine limb. Image-guided Raman spectroscopy (IG-RS) of the canine limb using CT images of the tissue to guide the recovery recovered a contrast of 145:1 between the cortical bone and background. Considerably less contrast was found without the CT image to guide recovery. This study presents the first known IG-RS results from tissue and indicates that intrinsically high contrasts (on the order of a hundred fold) are available.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  24. M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using Concentric Illumination Rings and Collection with a Circular Fiber-Optic Array," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
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  31. D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (12)

C. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, X. Wang, K. D. Paulsen, W. A. Wells, J. Forero, C. Kogel, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and P. A. Kaufman, "Image-guided optical spectroscopy provides molecular-specific information in vivo: MRI-guided spectroscopy of breast cancer hemoglobin, water & scatterer Size," Opt. Lett. 32, 933-935 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, J. Wang, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Image-guided diffuse optical fluorescence tomography implemented with Laplacian-type regularization," Opt. Express 15, 4066-4082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Robichaux-Viehoever, E. Kanter, H. Shappell, D. Billheimer, H. JonesIII, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Characterization of Raman spectra measured in vivo for the detection of cervical dysplasia," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 986-993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, "Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024008: 024001-024008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, "Detection and treatment of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pivotal challenge in translating biophotonics from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051401:051401 - 051422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using Concentric Illumination Rings and Collection with a Circular Fiber-Optic Array," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy and mapping using concentric illumination rings and collection with a circular fiber-optic array.," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, "Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 493-541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth," Appl. Opt. 40, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

M. V. Schulmerich, W. F. Finney, R. A. Fredericks, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using a Globally Illuminated Non-Confocal Fiber-Optic Array Probe in the Presence of Raman Photon Migration," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 109-114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Lambert, C. C. Pelletier, and M. Borchert, "Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031110: 031111-031118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Zhang, J. M. SullivanJr., H. Ghadyani, and D. M. Meyer, "MRI guided 3D mesh generation and registration for biological modeling," Journal of computing and information science in engineering 5, 283-290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Morris, A. Berger, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Carter, S. M. Angel, M. Lawrence-Snyder, J. Scaffidi, R. E. Whipple, and J. G. Reynolds, "Standoff detection of high explosive magterials at 50 meters in ambientl light conditions using a small Raman instrument," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 769-775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical-tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Automated method for subtraction of fluorescence from biological Raman spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1363-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, "Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review)," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 259-268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, "Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: A review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance," Bone 22, 181-187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

A. J. Bailey, S. F. Wotton, T. J. Sims, and P. W. Thompson, "Post-translational modifications in the collagen of human osteoporotic femoral head," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 801-805 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proc. IEEE 66, 51-83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angel, S. M.

Bailey, A. J.

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, "Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: A review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance," Bone 22, 181-187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Bailey, S. F. Wotton, T. J. Sims, and P. W. Thompson, "Post-translational modifications in the collagen of human osteoporotic femoral head," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 801-805 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, B.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, and F. Lanni, "Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing wave excitation,"  366, 44-48 (1993).

Bearman, G.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, A.

M. D. Morris, A. Berger, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billheimer, D.

Boas, D. A.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borchert, M.

J. L. Lambert, C. C. Pelletier, and M. Borchert, "Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031110: 031111-031118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boskey, A. L.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B.

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical-tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brukilacchio, T. J.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, N. P.

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carden, A.

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, "Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review)," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 259-268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C.

Carter, J. C.

Chatziioannou, A. F.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaves, T.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, A. U.

Chen, N.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-c.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chorlton, M.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, J. H.

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

Cronin, E. B.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Currier, A. A.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, J. Wang, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Image-guided diffuse optical fluorescence tomography implemented with Laplacian-type regularization," Opt. Express 15, 4066-4082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth," Appl. Opt. 40, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, B.

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

Dooley, K. A.

Draper, E. R. C.

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enejder, A. M. K.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D. L.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, and F. Lanni, "Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing wave excitation,"  366, 44-48 (1993).

Feld, M. S.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fink, W.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finney, W. F.

M. V. Schulmerich, W. F. Finney, R. A. Fredericks, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using a Globally Illuminated Non-Confocal Fiber-Optic Array Probe in the Presence of Raman Photon Migration," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 109-114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forero, J.

Fredericks, R. A.

Ghadyani, H.

J. Q. Zhang, J. M. SullivanJr., H. Ghadyani, and D. M. Meyer, "MRI guided 3D mesh generation and registration for biological modeling," Journal of computing and information science in engineering 5, 283-290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. J.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golcuk, K.

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

Goldstein, S. A.

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using Concentric Illumination Rings and Collection with a Circular Fiber-Optic Array," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy and mapping using concentric illumination rings and collection with a circular fiber-optic array.," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodship, A. E.

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grove, M. R.

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, F. J.

F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proc. IEEE 66, 51-83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hartov, A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. I.

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

Horowitz, G. L.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humayun, M.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Johnson, W. R.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, H.

Kanter, E.

Kaufman, P. A.

Kepshire, D. S.

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth," Appl. Opt. 40, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knott, L.

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, "Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: A review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance," Bone 22, 181-187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogel, C.

Kogel, C. A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohn, D. H.

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

Kopans, D. B.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreider, J.

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

Lambert, J. L.

J. L. Lambert, C. C. Pelletier, and M. Borchert, "Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031110: 031111-031118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lanni, F.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, and F. Lanni, "Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing wave excitation,"  366, 44-48 (1993).

Lawrence-Snyder, M.

Li, A.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. A.

Lyritis, G.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Matousek, P.

P. Matousek and N. Stone, "Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024008: 024001-024008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCreadie, B. R.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meaney, P. M.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendelsohn, R.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, D. M.

J. Q. Zhang, J. M. SullivanJr., H. Ghadyani, and D. M. Meyer, "MRI guided 3D mesh generation and registration for biological modeling," Journal of computing and information science in engineering 5, 283-290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. H.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, M. D.

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy and mapping using concentric illumination rings and collection with a circular fiber-optic array.," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using Concentric Illumination Rings and Collection with a Circular Fiber-Optic Array," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

M. V. Schulmerich, W. F. Finney, R. A. Fredericks, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using a Globally Illuminated Non-Confocal Fiber-Optic Array Probe in the Presence of Raman Photon Migration," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 109-114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Morris, A. Berger, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, "Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review)," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 259-268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Movasaghi, Z.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, "Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 493-541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paithankar, D. Y.

Parker, A. W.

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschalis, E. P.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, B. W.

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, J. Wang, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Image-guided diffuse optical fluorescence tomography implemented with Laplacian-type regularization," Opt. Express 15, 4066-4082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, X. Wang, K. D. Paulsen, W. A. Wells, J. Forero, C. Kogel, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and P. A. Kaufman, "Image-guided optical spectroscopy provides molecular-specific information in vivo: MRI-guided spectroscopy of breast cancer hemoglobin, water & scatterer Size," Opt. Lett. 32, 933-935 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth," Appl. Opt. 40, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical-tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelletier, C. C.

J. L. Lambert, C. C. Pelletier, and M. Borchert, "Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031110: 031111-031118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

C. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, X. Wang, K. D. Paulsen, W. A. Wells, J. Forero, C. Kogel, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and P. A. Kaufman, "Image-guided optical spectroscopy provides molecular-specific information in vivo: MRI-guided spectroscopy of breast cancer hemoglobin, water & scatterer Size," Opt. Lett. 32, 933-935 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, J. Wang, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Image-guided diffuse optical fluorescence tomography implemented with Laplacian-type regularization," Opt. Express 15, 4066-4082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, "Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth," Appl. Opt. 40, 1669-1678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical-tomography: resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. SevickMuraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, H.

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poplack, S. P.

C. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, X. Wang, K. D. Paulsen, W. A. Wells, J. Forero, C. Kogel, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and P. A. Kaufman, "Image-guided optical spectroscopy provides molecular-specific information in vivo: MRI-guided spectroscopy of breast cancer hemoglobin, water & scatterer Size," Opt. Lett. 32, 933-935 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rafferty, E.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rannou, F. R.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehman, I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, "Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 493-541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, "Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 493-541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. G.

Robichaux-Viehoever, A.

Sahar, N. D.

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

Sasic, S.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scaffidi, J.

Scecina, T. G.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schulmerich, M. V.

SevickMuraca, E. M.

Shane, E.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shappell, H.

Shih, W.

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shudong, J.

Sims, T. J.

A. J. Bailey, S. F. Wotton, T. J. Sims, and P. W. Thompson, "Post-translational modifications in the collagen of human osteoporotic femoral head," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 801-805 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skarantavos, G.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soho, S. K.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

Stone, N.

P. Matousek and N. Stone, "Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024008: 024001-024008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J. J.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudhaker Rao, D.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, J. M.

J. Q. Zhang, J. M. SullivanJr., H. Ghadyani, and D. M. Meyer, "MRI guided 3D mesh generation and registration for biological modeling," Journal of computing and information science in engineering 5, 283-290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. L.

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, and F. Lanni, "Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing wave excitation,"  366, 44-48 (1993).

Thompson, P. W.

A. J. Bailey, S. F. Wotton, T. J. Sims, and P. W. Thompson, "Post-translational modifications in the collagen of human osteoporotic femoral head," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 801-805 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Towrie, M.

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanasse, T. M.

Vine, H. S.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

Weaver, J.

Wells, W. A.

C. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, X. Wang, K. D. Paulsen, W. A. Wells, J. Forero, C. Kogel, J. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, and P. A. Kaufman, "Image-guided optical spectroscopy provides molecular-specific information in vivo: MRI-guided spectroscopy of breast cancer hemoglobin, water & scatterer Size," Opt. Lett. 32, 933-935 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whipple, R. E.

Widjaja, E.

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, "Detection and treatment of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pivotal challenge in translating biophotonics from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051401:051401 - 051422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. W.

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wotton, S. F.

A. J. Bailey, S. F. Wotton, T. J. Sims, and P. W. Thompson, "Post-translational modifications in the collagen of human osteoporotic femoral head," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 801-805 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. Q.

J. Q. Zhang, J. M. SullivanJr., H. Ghadyani, and D. M. Meyer, "MRI guided 3D mesh generation and registration for biological modeling," Journal of computing and information science in engineering 5, 283-290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (7)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, "Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 493-541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy and mapping using concentric illumination rings and collection with a circular fiber-optic array.," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, K. A. Dooley, T. M. Vanasse, S. A. Goldstein, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface and Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using Concentric Illumination Rings and Collection with a Circular Fiber-Optic Array," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 671-678 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Robichaux-Viehoever, E. Kanter, H. Shappell, D. Billheimer, H. JonesIII, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Characterization of Raman spectra measured in vivo for the detection of cervical dysplasia," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 986-993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Schulmerich, W. F. Finney, R. A. Fredericks, and M. D. Morris, "Subsurface Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping Using a Globally Illuminated Non-Confocal Fiber-Optic Array Probe in the Presence of Raman Photon Migration," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 109-114 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Carter, S. M. Angel, M. Lawrence-Snyder, J. Scaffidi, R. E. Whipple, and J. G. Reynolds, "Standoff detection of high explosive magterials at 50 meters in ambientl light conditions using a small Raman instrument," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 769-775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Automated method for subtraction of fluorescence from biological Raman spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1363-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1)

A. J. Bailey, S. F. Wotton, T. J. Sims, and P. W. Thompson, "Post-translational modifications in the collagen of human osteoporotic femoral head," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185, 801-805 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bone (2)

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, "Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: A review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance," Bone 22, 181-187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. McCreadie, M. D. Morris, T.-c. Chen, D. Sudhaker Rao, W. F. Finney, E. Widjaja, and S. A. Goldstein, "Bone tissue compositional differences in women with and without osteoporotic fracture," Bone 39, 1190-1195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Brooksby, Dehghani, H. , Pogue, B. W. , Paulsen, K. D. , "Near infrared (NIR) tomography breast image reconstruction with apriori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities," IEEe J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. on Lasers in Medicine and Biology  9, 199-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

Q. Zhang, T. J. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Stott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033-0240339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

W. R. Johnson, D. W. Wilson, W. Fink, M. Humayun, and G. Bearman, "Snapshot hyperspectral imaging in ophthalmology," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014036-014037 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Matousek and N. Stone, "Prospects for the diagnosis of breast cancer by noninvasive probing of calcifications using transmission Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024008: 024001-024008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lambert, C. C. Pelletier, and M. Borchert, "Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031110: 031111-031118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Enejder, T. G. Scecina, J. Oh, M. Hunter, W. Shih, S. Sasic, G. L. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, "Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031114: 031111-031119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, "Detection and treatment of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pivotal challenge in translating biophotonics from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051401:051401 - 051422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Morris, A. Berger, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carden and M. D. Morris, "Application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of mineralized tissues (review)," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 259-268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bone. Miner. Res. (2)

E. R. C. Draper, M. D. Morris, N. P. Camacho, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. W. Parker, and A. E. Goodship, "Novel assessment of bone using time-resolved transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 20, 1968-1972 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, "Bone fragility and collagen cross-links," J. Bone. Miner. Res. 19, 2000-2004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JBO Lett. (1)

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. H. Cole, J. Kreider, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Non-invasive Raman tomographic imaging of canine cortical bone tissue," JBO Lett. 13, 020506: 020501-020503 (2007).

Journal of computing and information science in engineering (1)

J. Q. Zhang, J. M. SullivanJr., H. Ghadyani, and D. M. Meyer, "MRI guided 3D mesh generation and registration for biological modeling," Journal of computing and information science in engineering 5, 283-290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

D. H. Kohn, N. D. Sahar, S. I. Hong, K. Golcuk, and M. D. Morris, "Local Mineral and Matrix Changes Associated with Bone Adaptation and Microdamage," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 898E, 1-11 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proc. IEEE 66, 51-83 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (3)

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology 243, 350-359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, A. Hartov, P. M. Meaney, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, M. R. Grove, S. K. Soho, and W. A. Wells, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: average tissue property values in women with negative clinical findings," Radiology 231, 571-580 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

B. Bailey, D. L. Farkas, D. L. Taylor, and F. Lanni, "Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing wave excitation,"  366, 44-48 (1993).

M. V. Schulmerich, M. D. Morris, T. M. Vanasse, and S. A. Goldstein, "Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy of bone global sampling and ring/disk fiber optic probes," in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems V, (SPIE, 2007), 643009-643008.

M. V. Schulmerich, S. Srinivasan, J. Kreider, J. H. Cole, K. A. Dooley, S. A. Goldstein, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "Raman tomography of tissue phantoms and bone tissue," in Biomedical optical spectroscopy, (SPIE, 2008),

J. Schöberl, "NETGEN - An advancing front 2D/3D-mesh generator based on abstract rules."

S. Srinivasan, M. V. Schulmerich, B. W. Pogue, and M. D. Morris, "3-D image-guided raman characterization in a phantom study," in Biomedical Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), BWD5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Reflectance mode instrumentation for Raman measurements is shown using a ring/disk geometry. The ring diameters can be varied to sample multiple depths for tomographic reconstruction. (b) Transmission mode configuration is shown using a rectangular array of collection fibers at 180 degrees from the line source illumination. Multiple projections across the tissue can be obtained by rotating the sample with respect to the source-collection fiber setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic representation of the ring/disk measurements on the canine limb is shown using surface rendering from CT images. The ring diameter was varied between 6 and 16 mm for 10 different separations between source ring and collection fibers. (b) Representation of the transmission measurements from the canine tibia is shown. A total of 13 projections were obtained at 8° intervals around the limb.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-section of the reconstructed volume showing IG-RS estimates of the tissue phantom imaged using the ring/disk probe. The Teflon® inclusion was recovered with a contrast of 460:1 with respect to the background agar/1% Intralipid® gel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface rendering of bone and surrounding tissues. The outer limb surface was used to generate a volumetric mesh for computation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Bone scores computed from reflectance measurements. (b) Bone scores computed from transmission measurements. The score plots indicate the correlation between the spectra obtained at each collection fiber and the bone spectra. (c) The bone scores were calibrated before the reconstruction using a scaling factor obtained from the phantom data, which compensated for the misfit between the FEM model and the measured data.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A cross-section of the reconstructed IG-RS estimates using (a) reflectance measurements from the ring/disk configuration and (b) transmission measurements using the rectangular array of collection fibers. Recovered contrast between the bone and background skin was more than 100-fold higher using transmission measurements than using reflectance data, as seen from the scale for reconstructed Raman yield.

Equations (5)

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D x ( r ) Φ x r ω + ( μ ax ( r ) + c ) Φ x r ω = S x r ω
D m ( r ) Φ m r ω + ( μ am ( r ) + c ) Φ m r ω = S m r ω
S m r ω = ημ af ( r ) Φ x r ω 1 iωτ ( r ) 1 + ω 2 τ 2 ( r )
γ = [ T ] 1 T Φ
γ = ημ af 1 1 + ω 2 τ 2

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