Abstract

A highly sensitive technique based on optical absorption using a single-mode, channel integrated optical waveguide is described for broad spectral band detection and analysis of heme-containing protein films at a glass/water interface. Fabrication steps and device characteristics of optical waveguides suitable for operation in the wavelength range of 400 – 650 nm are described. Experimental results reported here show a limit of detection smaller than 100 pg/cm2 for a submonolayer of ferricytochrome c by probing the Soret transition band with a 406-nm semiconductor diode laser propagating in a single-mode, ion-exchanged channel waveguide. By taking advantage of the exceptionally low limit of detection, we examined the adsorption isotherm of cytochrome c on a glass surface with unprecedented detail. Unlike other surface-specific techniques (e.g. SPR, integrated optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer) that probe local refractive-index changes and therefore are very susceptible to temperature fluctuations, the integrated optical waveguide absorption technique probes molecular-specific transition bands and is expected to be less vulnerable to environmental perturbations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. D. Wilson, "Analyzing biomolecular interactions," Science 295, 2103-2105, (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Biocore Product Brochure, "Biacore 3000," (2007). http://www.biacore.com/lifesciences/products/systems_overview/3000/system_information/index.html>
  5. A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "A simplified broadband coupling approach applied to chemically robust sol-gel, planar integrated optical waveguides," Anal. Chem. 74,1751 - 1759 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. H. A. Badr and M. E. Meyerhoff, "Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on Aluminum (III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application," Anal. Chem. 77, 6719-6728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. B. Mendes and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparative analysis of absorbance calculations for integrated optical waveguide configurations by use of the Ray Optics Model and the Electromagnetic Wave Theory," Appl. Opt. 39, 612-621 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Tervonen, P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, "Examination Of 2-Step Fabrication Methods For Single-Mode Fiber Compatible Ion-Exchanged Glass Wave-Guides," Appl. Opt. 30, 338-343 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Lukosz, "Integrated Optical Chemical and Direct Biochemical Sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 37-50 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Honkanen, "Silver-Film Iob-Exchange Technique," in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed., (Artech House, Boston-London, 1992).
  16. R. W. Chuang and C. C. Lee, "Low-loss deep glass waveguides produced with dry silver electromigration process," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1590-1597 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Scott and A. G. Mauk, in Cytochrome c: A Multidisciplinary Approach, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1996).
  18. E. Margoliash and N. Frohwirt, "Spectrum of Horse-Heart cytochrome c," Biochem. J. 71, 570-572 (1959).
  19. P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Viljanen and M. Leppihalme, "Analysis of Loss in Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides," Proc. European Conf. Integrated Optics, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1981), pp.18-21.
  21. S. Honkanen and A. Tervonen, "Experimental-analysis Of Ag+-Na+ Exchange in Glass with Ag Film Ion Sources for Planar Optical Wave-Guide Fabrication," J. Appl. Physics 63, 634-639 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. F. Runge and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparison of microcontact-printed and solution-adsorbed cytochrome c films on indium tin oxide electrodes," Langmuir 19, 9418-9424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. H. A. Badr and M. E. Meyerhoff, "Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on Aluminum (III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application," Anal. Chem. 77, 6719-6728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. F. Runge and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparison of microcontact-printed and solution-adsorbed cytochrome c films on indium tin oxide electrodes," Langmuir 19, 9418-9424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

W. D. Wilson, "Analyzing biomolecular interactions," Science 295, 2103-2105, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "A simplified broadband coupling approach applied to chemically robust sol-gel, planar integrated optical waveguides," Anal. Chem. 74,1751 - 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Chuang and C. C. Lee, "Low-loss deep glass waveguides produced with dry silver electromigration process," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1590-1597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15, (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. Lukosz, "Integrated Optical Chemical and Direct Biochemical Sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 37-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, "Examination Of 2-Step Fabrication Methods For Single-Mode Fiber Compatible Ion-Exchanged Glass Wave-Guides," Appl. Opt. 30, 338-343 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Honkanen and A. Tervonen, "Experimental-analysis Of Ag+-Na+ Exchange in Glass with Ag Film Ion Sources for Planar Optical Wave-Guide Fabrication," J. Appl. Physics 63, 634-639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

E. Margoliash and N. Frohwirt, "Spectrum of Horse-Heart cytochrome c," Biochem. J. 71, 570-572 (1959).

Abe, T.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albert, J.

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Allara, D. L.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Badr, I. H. A.

I. H. A. Badr and M. E. Meyerhoff, "Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on Aluminum (III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application," Anal. Chem. 77, 6719-6728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradshaw, J. T.

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "A simplified broadband coupling approach applied to chemically robust sol-gel, planar integrated optical waveguides," Anal. Chem. 74,1751 - 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, J. J.

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chandross, E. A.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Chuang, R. W.

Cordone, L.

M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cupane, A.

M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deki, K.

Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunphy, D. R.

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frohwirt, N.

E. Margoliash and N. Frohwirt, "Spectrum of Horse-Heart cytochrome c," Biochem. J. 71, 570-572 (1959).

Garoff, S.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, "Examination Of 2-Step Fabrication Methods For Single-Mode Fiber Compatible Ion-Exchanged Glass Wave-Guides," Appl. Opt. 30, 338-343 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Honkanen and A. Tervonen, "Experimental-analysis Of Ag+-Na+ Exchange in Glass with Ag Film Ion Sources for Planar Optical Wave-Guide Fabrication," J. Appl. Physics 63, 634-639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, H.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Israelachvili, J.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Itagaki, Y.

Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lee, J. E.

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leone, M.

M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L. F.

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, "Integrated Optical Chemical and Direct Biochemical Sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 37-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margoliash, E.

E. Margoliash and N. Frohwirt, "Spectrum of Horse-Heart cytochrome c," Biochem. J. 71, 570-572 (1959).

McCarthy, T. J.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, S. B.

A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "A simplified broadband coupling approach applied to chemically robust sol-gel, planar integrated optical waveguides," Anal. Chem. 74,1751 - 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Mendes and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparative analysis of absorbance calculations for integrated optical waveguide configurations by use of the Ray Optics Model and the Electromagnetic Wave Theory," Appl. Opt. 39, 612-621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhoff, M. E.

I. H. A. Badr and M. E. Meyerhoff, "Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on Aluminum (III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application," Anal. Chem. 77, 6719-6728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Militello, V.

M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, R.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S. I.

Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Odake, T.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pease, R. F.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Poyhonen, P.

A. Tervonen, P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, "Examination Of 2-Step Fabrication Methods For Single-Mode Fiber Compatible Ion-Exchanged Glass Wave-Guides," Appl. Opt. 30, 338-343 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rabolt, J. F.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, N. C.

A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Runge, A. F.

A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Runge and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparison of microcontact-printed and solution-adsorbed cytochrome c films on indium tin oxide electrodes," Langmuir 19, 9418-9424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, S. S.

A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Runge and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparison of microcontact-printed and solution-adsorbed cytochrome c films on indium tin oxide electrodes," Langmuir 19, 9418-9424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "A simplified broadband coupling approach applied to chemically robust sol-gel, planar integrated optical waveguides," Anal. Chem. 74,1751 - 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Mendes and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparative analysis of absorbance calculations for integrated optical waveguide configurations by use of the Ray Optics Model and the Electromagnetic Wave Theory," Appl. Opt. 39, 612-621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sadaoka, Y.

Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, M. C.

Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tahkokorpi, M.

A. Tervonen, P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, "Examination Of 2-Step Fabrication Methods For Single-Mode Fiber Compatible Ion-Exchanged Glass Wave-Guides," Appl. Opt. 30, 338-343 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takiguchi, H.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tammela, S.

Tervonen, A.

A. Tervonen, P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, "Examination Of 2-Step Fabrication Methods For Single-Mode Fiber Compatible Ion-Exchanged Glass Wave-Guides," Appl. Opt. 30, 338-343 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen and A. Tervonen, "Experimental-analysis Of Ag+-Na+ Exchange in Glass with Ag Film Ion Sources for Planar Optical Wave-Guide Fabrication," J. Appl. Physics 63, 634-639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, K.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uehara, M.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umemura, T.

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, W. D.

W. D. Wilson, "Analyzing biomolecular interactions," Science 295, 2103-2105, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynne, K. J.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (3)

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "A simplified broadband coupling approach applied to chemically robust sol-gel, planar integrated optical waveguides," Anal. Chem. 74,1751 - 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. A. Badr and M. E. Meyerhoff, "Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on Aluminum (III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application," Anal. Chem. 77, 6719-6728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umemura, H. Hotta, T. Abe, Y. Takahashi, H. Takiguchi, M. Uehara, T. Odake, K. Tsunoda, "Slab optical waveguide high-acidity sensor based on an absorbance change of protoporphyrin IX," Anal. Chem. 78, 7511-7516 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biochem. J. (1)

E. Margoliash and N. Frohwirt, "Spectrum of Horse-Heart cytochrome c," Biochem. J. 71, 570-572 (1959).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Poyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. Tahkokorpi, and J. Albert, "Planar 1/8 Splitter in Glass by Photoresist Masked Silver Film Ion-Exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Biophys. J. (1)

M. Leone, A. Cupane, V. Militello, and L. Cordone, "Thermal broadening of the Soret band in heme complexes and in heme proteins: role of the iron dynamics," Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 349-352 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physics (1)

S. Honkanen and A. Tervonen, "Experimental-analysis Of Ag+-Na+ Exchange in Glass with Ag Film Ion Sources for Planar Optical Wave-Guide Fabrication," J. Appl. Physics 63, 634-639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

Y. Y. Cheng, S. H. Lin, H. C. Chang, M. C. Su, "Probing adsorption, orientation and conformational changes of cytochrome c on fused silica surfaces with the soret band," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 10687-10694 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. F. Runge, N. C. Rasmussen, S. S. Saavedra, and S. B. Mendes, "Determination of anisotropic optical constants and surface coverage of molecular films using polarized visible ATR spectroscopy. Application to adsorbed cytochrome c films," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 424-431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

S. B. Mendes, L. F. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, S. S. Saavedra, "Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide," Langmuir 12, 3374-3376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Runge and S. S. Saavedra, "Comparison of microcontact-printed and solution-adsorbed cytochrome c films on indium tin oxide electrodes," Langmuir 19, 9418-9424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, "Molecular Monolayers and Films," Langmuir 3, 932-950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. D. Wilson, "Analyzing biomolecular interactions," Science 295, 2103-2105, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Itagaki, K. Deki, S. I. Nakashima, Y. Sadaoka, "Development of porphyrin dispersed sol-gel films as HCl sensitive optochemical gas sensor," Sens. Actuators B 117, 302-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, "Integrated Optical Chemical and Direct Biochemical Sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 37-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Honkanen, "Silver-Film Iob-Exchange Technique," in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed., (Artech House, Boston-London, 1992).

R. A. Scott and A. G. Mauk, in Cytochrome c: A Multidisciplinary Approach, (University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1996).

Biocore Product Brochure, "Biacore 3000," (2007). http://www.biacore.com/lifesciences/products/systems_overview/3000/system_information/index.html>

J. Viljanen and M. Leppihalme, "Analysis of Loss in Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides," Proc. European Conf. Integrated Optics, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1981), pp.18-21.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The schematic of the waveguide sensing platform. The fundamental mode of Ag ion exchange waveguide interacts with the surface adsorbed cyt c molecules for a pathlength of l = 1.6 cm. Interaction strength, k, is determined by h and evanescent tail of the mode as shown. (b) Near field images of the waveguide output. Only the fundamental mode was excited at 532 nm. Superposition of two lateral modes can be seen for 406 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The silver ion concentration and fundamental mode intensity profile (the solid contour lines are for normalized concentrations of 0.3 0.6 and 0.9 and colors from blue to yellow are for increasing intensity).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental data showing the response of the sensor to about one half of a monolayer of cyt c. The inset shows the normalized sensor response (A/(ϵ k)) with respect to the probing path length at 406 nm (dashed line) and at 532 nm (solid line). The SNR is measured to be ~1500 for 406 nm laser source.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Adsorption isotherm of cyt c on the glass surface at pH-7, measured at 406 nm. The dashed curve is the best fit of the experimental data to a Langmuir adsorption model with Ka = 2.4 × 106 M-1. The error bars are showing the surface concentration variance of independent three measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Response of the sensor to 1 nM of cyt c solution. This corresponds to about 270 pg/cm2 surface coverage. The signal change is Io - If ≈ 0.01, which in absorbance units corresponds to A = -log (0.99) ≈ 4×10-3, well above than the ALoD = 8.69×10-4.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = ( ε Γ l ) × κ h
Θ = K a C b 1 + K a C b

Metrics