Abstract

Heterodyne detection for apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy was used to study periodic gold nanowell arrays. Optical near-field amplitude and phase signals were obtained simultaneously with the topography of the gold nanowells and with different polarizations. Theoretical calculations of the near-fields were consistent with the experiments; in particular, the calculated amplitudes were in especially good agreement. The heterodyne method is shown to be particularly effective for these types of periodic photonic structures and other highly scattering media, which can overwhelm the near-field scattered signal when conventional apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy is used.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. Lerondel, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. Rogers, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Aigouy, V. Mathet, P. Beauvillainu, "Electromagnetic field distribution on a rough gold thin film: An experimental study as a function of the gold thickness," Opt. Commun. 262, 263-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (6)

E. Hutter and J. Fendler, "Exploitation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. H. Kim and K. H. Park, "Local excitation of surface plasmon in sturctured Au films by atomic force anodic oxidation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 212-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Quidant, G. Badenes, S. Cheylan, R. Alcubilla, J. C. Weeber, and C. Girard, "Sub-wavelength patterning of the optical near-field," Opt. Express 12, 282-7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 73, 239-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of Ultrathin Organic Films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex Optical Constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip," Opt. Lett. 19, 159-161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," App. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Aigouy, L.

L. Aigouy, V. Mathet, P. Beauvillainu, "Electromagnetic field distribution on a rough gold thin film: An experimental study as a function of the gold thickness," Opt. Commun. 262, 263-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alcubilla, R.

Bachelot, R.

Badenes, G.

Beauvillainu, P.

L. Aigouy, V. Mathet, P. Beauvillainu, "Electromagnetic field distribution on a rough gold thin film: An experimental study as a function of the gold thickness," Opt. Commun. 262, 263-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bilhaut, L.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

Boccara, A. C.

Bouhelier, A.

Brockman, J. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of Ultrathin Organic Films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. B.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. H.

Cheylan, S.

Corn, R. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of Ultrathin Organic Films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J.

E. Hutter and J. Fendler, "Exploitation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaur, A.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geil, P.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

Gleyzes, P.

Gomez, L.

Grafstrom, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. Lerondel, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. Rogers, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon and P. Royer, "Apertureless scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 823-833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-1365 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanarp, P.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 73, 239-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex Optical Constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hua, F.

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. Fendler, "Exploitation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. S.

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

Jeon, S.

Kawata, S.

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 73, 239-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex Optical Constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. H. Kim and K. H. Park, "Local excitation of surface plasmon in sturctured Au films by atomic force anodic oxidation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 212-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. Kim, J. H. Kim and K. H. Park, "Local excitation of surface plasmon in sturctured Au films by atomic force anodic oxidation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 212-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-W.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

Mack, N. H.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. H. Mack, V. T. Velesquez, J. O. White, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "A High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 13, 5669-5675 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malyarchuk, V.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. H. Mack, V. T. Velesquez, J. O. White, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "A High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 13, 5669-5675 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathet, V.

L. Aigouy, V. Mathet, P. Beauvillainu, "Electromagnetic field distribution on a rough gold thin film: An experimental study as a function of the gold thickness," Opt. Commun. 262, 263-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meitl, M. A.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, B. P.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of Ultrathin Organic Films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. H. Mack, V. T. Velesquez, J. O. White, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "A High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 13, 5669-5675 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," App. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

J. Kim, J. H. Kim and K. H. Park, "Local excitation of surface plasmon in sturctured Au films by atomic force anodic oxidation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 212-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

Rogers, J.

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. H. Mack, V. T. Velesquez, J. O. White, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "A High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 13, 5669-5675 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rotkina, L.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

Rydh, A.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-1365 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shim, M.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanon, I.

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velesquez, V. T.

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wessel, J.

White, J. O.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," App. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," App. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. Fendler, "Exploitation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of Ultrathin Organic Films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," App. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Optical oscillation modes of plasmon particles observed in direct space by phase-contrast near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 73, 239-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-70 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. Kim, J. H. Kim and K. H. Park, "Local excitation of surface plasmon in sturctured Au films by atomic force anodic oxidation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 212-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer Imprint Lithography with Molecular-Scale Resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Aigouy, V. Mathet, P. Beauvillainu, "Electromagnetic field distribution on a rough gold thin film: An experimental study as a function of the gold thickness," Opt. Commun. 262, 263-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex Optical Constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. T. Soares, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals," PNAS 103, 17143-17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic of homodyne detection method. IL is the incident light, Eb is the background light, Es near-field signal from the tip-sample interaction, LD lock-in detector system. (b) Schematic of heterodyne detection method. AOM is the acousto-optical modulators, Er is the reference beam or Δω, BS is a beam splitter, O is the focusing/collecting objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

NSOM images of gold nanowells. (a) Topography, (b) homodyne detected optical near-field amplitude taken at tapping mode frequency f, (c) heterodyne detected optical near-field amplitude (d) phase image taken at 2f-Δω.[10] The incident light travels from the bottom of the images

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical FDTD calculations and experimental NSOM images of the near-field amplitude signal of gold nanowell films. Each left-side panel is a theoretical result for the specified incident/observed polarization state, with the corresponding experimental result to its right. The incident light travels from the bottom of the images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical FDTD calculations and experimental NSOM images of the near-phase signal [-π, π] of gold nanowell films. Each left-side panel is a theoretical result for the specified incident/observed polarization state, with the corresponding experimental result to its right. The incident light travels from the bottom of the images

Equations (2)

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E s 2 + 2 E s E b cos ( ϕ b ϕ s ) ,
2 E s E r cos ( Δ ω t + ϕ r ϕ s ) ,

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