Abstract

A novel application of quantitative phase imaging under linearly polarized light is introduced for studying unstained anisotropic live cells. The method is first validated as a technique for mapping the twodimensional retardation distribution of a well-characterized optical fiber and is then applied to the characterization of unstained isolated cardiac cells. The experimental retardation measurements are in very good agreement with the established Brace-Köhler method, and additionally provide spatially resolved cell birefringence and phase data.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Dragomir, G. W. Baxter and A. Roberts, "Phase-sensitive imaging techniques applied to optical fibre characterisation," IEE Proc. Optoel. 153, 217-221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.C. Montarou, T.K. Gaylord, B.L. Bachim, A.I. Dachevski and A. Agarwal, "Two-wave plate compensator method for full-field retardation measurements," Appl. Opt. 45, 271-280 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.C. Montarou and T.K. Gaylord, "Two-wave-plate compensator method for single point retardation measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 6580-6595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2001

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Gotzinger, M. Sticker, M Pircher and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-789 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

F. El-Diasty, "Interferometric determination of induced birefringence due to bending in single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. A: Pure & Appl. Opt. 1, 197-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

P-S. Jouk, Y. Usson, G. Michalowicz and F. Parazza, "Mapping of the orientation of myocardial cells by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 30, 480-490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, "New polarized light microscope with precision universal compensator," J. Microsc. 180, 140-147 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

M. Irving, "Birefringece changes associated with isomeric contraction and rapid shortening steps in frog skeletal muscle fibres," J. Physiol. 472, 127-156 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991

R. Oldenbourg, "Analysis of edge birefringence," Biophys. J. 60, 629-641 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.G. Pickering and D.R. Boughner, "Quantitative assesement of the age of fibrotic lesions using polarized light microscopy and digital image analysis," Am. J. Pathol. 138, 1225-1231 (1991).
[PubMed]

1985

N. Streibl, "Three-dimensional imaging by a microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A A 2, 121-127 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Chayen, L. Bitensky, BraimbridgeM.V.  and S. Darracott-Cankovic, "Increased myosin orientation during muscle contraction: A measure of cardiac contractility," Cell Biochem. & Funct. 3, 101-114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

J. Poledna and M. Morad, "Effect of caffeine on the birefringence signal in single skeletal muscle fibers and mammalian heart," Pflüg.Arch. Eu. J. Physiol. 397, 174-189 (1983).

1977

S.M. Baylor and H. Oetliker, "A large birefringence signal preceding contraction in single twitch fibres of the frog," J. Physiol. 264, 141-162 (1977).
[PubMed]

1964

T.R. Sliker, "Linear electro-optic effects in class 32,6,3m and 43m crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 54, 1348-1351 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Allman, B.E.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ampem-Lassen, E.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir and K. A. Nugent, "Refractive index profiling of axisymmetric optical fibres: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachim, B.L.

Barone-Nugent, E.D.

E.D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty and K.A. Nugent, "Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 206, 194-203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

E.D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty and K.A. Nugent, "Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 206, 194-203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Dragomir, G. W. Baxter and A. Roberts, "Phase-sensitive imaging techniques applied to optical fibre characterisation," IEE Proc. Optoel. 153, 217-221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, K. Thorn, M. L. Michna, N. M. Dragomir, P. M. Farrell and G. W. Baxter, "Determination of bending-induced strain in optical fibers by use of quantitative phase imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 86-88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baylor, S.M.

S.M. Baylor and H. Oetliker, "A large birefringence signal preceding contraction in single twitch fibres of the frog," J. Physiol. 264, 141-162 (1977).
[PubMed]

Bellair, C.J.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bitensky, L.

J. Chayen, L. Bitensky, BraimbridgeM.V.  and S. Darracott-Cankovic, "Increased myosin orientation during muscle contraction: A measure of cardiac contractility," Cell Biochem. & Funct. 3, 101-114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boughner, D.R.

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.G. Pickering and D.R. Boughner, "Quantitative assesement of the age of fibrotic lesions using polarized light microscopy and digital image analysis," Am. J. Pathol. 138, 1225-1231 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braimbridge, L.

J. Chayen, L. Bitensky, BraimbridgeM.V.  and S. Darracott-Cankovic, "Increased myosin orientation during muscle contraction: A measure of cardiac contractility," Cell Biochem. & Funct. 3, 101-114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buyze, J.D.

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chayen, J.

J. Chayen, L. Bitensky, BraimbridgeM.V.  and S. Darracott-Cankovic, "Increased myosin orientation during muscle contraction: A measure of cardiac contractility," Cell Biochem. & Funct. 3, 101-114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, L.H.

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Curl, C.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dachevski, A.I.

Darracott-Cankovic, S.

J. Chayen, L. Bitensky, BraimbridgeM.V.  and S. Darracott-Cankovic, "Increased myosin orientation during muscle contraction: A measure of cardiac contractility," Cell Biochem. & Funct. 3, 101-114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delbridge, L.M.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Dragomir, N. M.

N. M. Dragomir, G. W. Baxter and A. Roberts, "Phase-sensitive imaging techniques applied to optical fibre characterisation," IEE Proc. Optoel. 153, 217-221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir and K. A. Nugent, "Refractive index profiling of axisymmetric optical fibres: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roberts, K. Thorn, M. L. Michna, N. M. Dragomir, P. M. Farrell and G. W. Baxter, "Determination of bending-induced strain in optical fibers by use of quantitative phase imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 86-88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dürr, F.

El-Diasty, F.

F. El-Diasty, "Interferometric determination of induced birefringence due to bending in single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. A: Pure & Appl. Opt. 1, 197-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, P. M.

Fercher, A. F.

Finlay, H.

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T.K.

Gotzinger, E.

Halpern, E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, P.J.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Houser, S. L.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, I.J.

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S. T.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir and K. A. Nugent, "Refractive index profiling of axisymmetric optical fibres: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irving, M.

M. Irving, "Birefringece changes associated with isomeric contraction and rapid shortening steps in frog skeletal muscle fibres," J. Physiol. 472, 127-156 (1993).
[PubMed]

Jouk, P-S.

P-S. Jouk, Y. Usson, G. Michalowicz and F. Parazza, "Mapping of the orientation of myocardial cells by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 30, 480-490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, T.

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi and R.J. Solaro, " Calcium, thin Filaments and the integrative biology of cardiac contractility," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 67, 39-67 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Limberger, H. G.

Lu, C.W.

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.S.

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Mei, G.

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, "New polarized light microscope with precision universal compensator," J. Microsc. 180, 140-147 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalowicz, G.

P-S. Jouk, Y. Usson, G. Michalowicz and F. Parazza, "Mapping of the orientation of myocardial cells by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 30, 480-490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michna, M. L.

Montarou, C.C.

Morad, M.

J. Poledna and M. Morad, "Effect of caffeine on the birefringence signal in single skeletal muscle fibers and mammalian heart," Pflüg.Arch. Eu. J. Physiol. 397, 174-189 (1983).

Nadkarni, S. K.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir and K. A. Nugent, "Refractive index profiling of axisymmetric optical fibres: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K.A.

E.D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty and K.A. Nugent, "Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 206, 194-203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oetliker, H.

S.M. Baylor and H. Oetliker, "A large birefringence signal preceding contraction in single twitch fibres of the frog," J. Physiol. 264, 141-162 (1977).
[PubMed]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Oka, T.

Oldenbourg, R.

M. Shribak and R. Oldenbourg, "Techniques for fast and sensitive measurements of two-dimensional birefringence distributions," Appl. Opt. 42, 3009-3017 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, "New polarized light microscope with precision universal compensator," J. Microsc. 180, 140-147 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Oldenbourg, "Analysis of edge birefringence," Biophys. J. 60, 629-641 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pace, P.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

Parazza, F.

P-S. Jouk, Y. Usson, G. Michalowicz and F. Parazza, "Mapping of the orientation of myocardial cells by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 30, 480-490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickering, J.G.

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.G. Pickering and D.R. Boughner, "Quantitative assesement of the age of fibrotic lesions using polarized light microscopy and digital image analysis," Am. J. Pathol. 138, 1225-1231 (1991).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. P.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M

Poledna, J.

J. Poledna and M. Morad, "Effect of caffeine on the birefringence signal in single skeletal muscle fibers and mammalian heart," Pflüg.Arch. Eu. J. Physiol. 397, 174-189 (1983).

Roberts, A.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Dragomir, G. W. Baxter and A. Roberts, "Phase-sensitive imaging techniques applied to optical fibre characterisation," IEE Proc. Optoel. 153, 217-221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir and K. A. Nugent, "Refractive index profiling of axisymmetric optical fibres: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, K. Thorn, M. L. Michna, N. M. Dragomir, P. M. Farrell and G. W. Baxter, "Determination of bending-induced strain in optical fibers by use of quantitative phase imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 86-88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

Shribak, M.

Sliker, T.R.

T.R. Sliker, "Linear electro-optic effects in class 32,6,3m and 43m crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 54, 1348-1351 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Solaro, R.J.

T. Kobayashi and R.J. Solaro, " Calcium, thin Filaments and the integrative biology of cardiac contractility," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 67, 39-67 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, A.J.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, "Three-dimensional imaging by a microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A A 2, 121-127 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.W.

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, K.

Usson, Y.

P-S. Jouk, Y. Usson, G. Michalowicz and F. Parazza, "Mapping of the orientation of myocardial cells by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 30, 480-490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.M.

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, P.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Pathol.

J.G. Pickering and D.R. Boughner, "Quantitative assesement of the age of fibrotic lesions using polarized light microscopy and digital image analysis," Am. J. Pathol. 138, 1225-1231 (1991).
[PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Physiol.

T. Kobayashi and R.J. Solaro, " Calcium, thin Filaments and the integrative biology of cardiac contractility," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 67, 39-67 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Eu. J. Physiol.

J. Poledna and M. Morad, "Effect of caffeine on the birefringence signal in single skeletal muscle fibers and mammalian heart," Pflüg.Arch. Eu. J. Physiol. 397, 174-189 (1983).

Biophys. J.

R. Oldenbourg, "Analysis of edge birefringence," Biophys. J. 60, 629-641 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardiovasc. Pathol.

L.H. Chow, D.R. Boughner, J.D. Buyze, H. Finlay and J.G. Pickering, "Enhanced detection of cardiac myocyte damage by polarized light microscopy: Use in a model of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis," Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10, 83-86 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Biochem. & Funct.

J. Chayen, L. Bitensky, BraimbridgeM.V.  and S. Darracott-Cankovic, "Increased myosin orientation during muscle contraction: A measure of cardiac contractility," Cell Biochem. & Funct. 3, 101-114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell. Physiol. Biochem.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Single cell volume measurement by Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM): A case study of erythrocyte morphology," Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 17, 193-200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P.

C. Curl, C.J. Bellair, P.J. Harris, B.E. Allman, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent and L.M. Delbridge, "Quantitative phase microscopy: a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells," Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. P. 31, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoel.

N. M. Dragomir, G. W. Baxter and A. Roberts, "Phase-sensitive imaging techniques applied to optical fibre characterisation," IEE Proc. Optoel. 153, 217-221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. P. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser and G. J. Tearney, "Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1474-1481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

C.W. Sun, Y.M. Wang, L.S. Lu, C.W. Lu, I.J. Hsu, Tsai. M.T., C.C. Yang, Y.W. Kiang and C.C. Wu, "Myocardial tissue characterization based on a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system with an ultrashort pulsed laser," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 54016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, "New polarized light microscope with precision universal compensator," J. Microsc. 180, 140-147 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty and K.A. Nugent, "Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 206, 194-203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure & Appl. Opt.

F. El-Diasty, "Interferometric determination of induced birefringence due to bending in single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. A: Pure & Appl. Opt. 1, 197-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

T.R. Sliker, "Linear electro-optic effects in class 32,6,3m and 43m crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 54, 1348-1351 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A A

N. Streibl, "Three-dimensional imaging by a microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A A 2, 121-127 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol.

S.M. Baylor and H. Oetliker, "A large birefringence signal preceding contraction in single twitch fibres of the frog," J. Physiol. 264, 141-162 (1977).
[PubMed]

M. Irving, "Birefringece changes associated with isomeric contraction and rapid shortening steps in frog skeletal muscle fibres," J. Physiol. 472, 127-156 (1993).
[PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

P-S. Jouk, Y. Usson, G. Michalowicz and F. Parazza, "Mapping of the orientation of myocardial cells by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 30, 480-490 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, G. W. Baxter, P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, A.J. Stevenson and A. Roberts, "Analysis of changes in optical fibres during arc-fusion splicing by use of quantitative phase imaging," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 847-851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

N. M. Dragomir, X. M. Goh and A. Roberts, "Three-dimensional refractive index reconstruction with quantitative phase tomography," Microsc. Res. Tech. (In Press Sep 2007).
[PubMed]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics : Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, (Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 1999).

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac and V. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, (Chapman and Hall Cambridge, 1993).

M. Mansuripur, Classical Optics and its Applications, (Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 2002).

N.H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Crystals and the polarising microscope, (Edward Arnold Ltd. London, 1970).

P. Whittaker, "Histological signatures of thermal injury: Applications in transmyocardial laser revascularization and radiofrequency ablation," Laser. Surg. Med.  27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transverse images of a Corning MM optical fiber. Inverted phase images recorded using a polarizer parallel (a) and perpendicular (b) to the fiber axis. The arrows indicate the orientation of the polarizers. (c) Computed 2D retardation map.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of the normalized measured transmittance between crossed-polarizers and the normalized transmittance calculated from the retardation of the Corning MM fiber measured by the QPPM method shown in Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscopic images of unstained isolated cardiomyocyte. (a) Phase image recorded using the polarizer parallel to the long axis of the cell; (b) Computed 2D retardation map using QPPM. The map is representative of the subtle changes due to the molecular organization occurring at submicroscopic scale within the cell.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the transmittance between crossed-polarizers (a) measured and (b) computed from retardation image illustrated in Fig. 3(b). The arrows indicate the orientation of the polarizers.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ = ( ϕ ϕ ) .
I ( x , y ) = I 0 ( x , y ) sin 2 ( Γ ( x , y ) 2 ) ,
Γ s = Γ c sin ( 2 θ c ) ,

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