Abstract

Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy using microresonator whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) is demonstrated. WGMs are excited around the circumference of a cylindrical cavity 125 µm in diameter using an adiabatically tapered fiber. The microresonator is very conveniently tuned by stretching, enabling the locking of an individual WGM to the laser. As the laser is scanned in frequency over an atmospheric trace-gas absorption line, changes in the fiber throughput are recorded. The experimental results of cavity-enhanced detection using such a microresonator are centimeter effective absorption pathlengths in a volume of only a few hundred microns cubed. The measured effective absorption pathlengths are in good agreement with theory.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Teraoka, S. Arnold, and F. Vollmer, "Perturbation approach to resonance shifts of whispering-gallery modes in a dielectric microsphere as a probe of a surrounding medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1937-1946 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40, 5742-5747 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147-154 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. T. Rosenberger, "Analysis of whispering-gallery microcavity-enhanced chemical absorption sensors," Opt. Express 15, 12959-12964 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Rezac and A. T. Rosenberger, "Locking a microsphere whispering-gallery mode to a laser", Opt. Express 8, 605-610 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-I Chou, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode laser absorption measurements of CH3Cl and CH4 near 1.65 μm," Appl. Opt. 36, 3288-3293 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, "Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments," New J. Phys. 3, 14.1-14.14 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007

A. T. Rosenberger, "Analysis of whispering-gallery microcavity-enhanced chemical absorption sensors," Opt. Express 15, 12959-12964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. P. Rezac and A. T. Rosenberger, "Locking a microsphere whispering-gallery mode to a laser", Opt. Express 8, 605-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40, 5742-5747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147-154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Armani, A. M.

Arnold, S.

Baer, D. S.

Bandy, D. K.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, D.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boschetti, A.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S.-I

Dale, E.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farca, G.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Hanson, R. K.

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Humphrey, M. J.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, G.

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iacob, E.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iannotta, S.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N. A.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rezac, J. P.

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rezac and A. T. Rosenberger, "Locking a microsphere whispering-gallery mode to a laser", Opt. Express 8, 605-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricci, L.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

A. T. Rosenberger, "Analysis of whispering-gallery microcavity-enhanced chemical absorption sensors," Opt. Express 15, 12959-12964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rezac and A. T. Rosenberger, "Locking a microsphere whispering-gallery mode to a laser", Opt. Express 8, 605-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scotoni, M.

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Vahala, K.

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, I.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wickramanayake, W. M. S.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

A. Boschetti, D. Bassi, E. Iacob, S. Iannotta, L. Ricci, and M. Scotoni, "Resonant photoacoustic simultaneous detection of methane and ethylene by means of a 1.63-μm diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 273-278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W. M. S. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whispering-gallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. J. Humphrey, E. Dale, A. T. Rosenberger, and D. K. Bandy, "Calculation of optimal fiber radius and whispering-gallery mode spectra for a fiber-coupled microsphere," Opt. Commun. 271, 124-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Express

J. P. Rezac and A. T. Rosenberger, "Locking a microsphere whispering-gallery mode to a laser", Opt. Express 8, 605-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Rezac, "Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection," Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, "Tunable whispering gallery modes for spectroscopy and CQED experiments," New J. Phys. 3, 14.1-14.14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. Light from a frequency-scanned cw diode laser (red) is launched into a bi-tapered fiber to excite WGMs of the microresonator. The microresonator is held in a PZT fixture for tuning purposes (inset.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

From top down: the measured absorption profiles of methane, methyl chloride, and ethylene obtained using a WGM locked to the laser. In each case, the top trace shows the amplified variation in dip depth and the bottom trace is the transmission profile of the gas in a 16-cm absorption cell. The frequency axis shows the tuning range.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of results from Fig. 2, for gases in air at atmospheric pressure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M 0 = 4 x ( 1 + x ) 2 .
d M 0 M 0 ( 1 x 1 + x ) f α i d α a L eff t d α a .
L eff t = ( 1 x 1 + x ) f α i ,
L eff e = 1 α n ln M 0 M 0 + Δ M 0 ,

Metrics