Abstract

We employ a novel optical technique, dynamic scattering microscopy (DSM), to extract the frequency dependence of the viscoelastic modulus associated with the red blood cell membrane. This approach applies the principle of dynamic light scattering to micro beads attached to the red blood cell membrane in thermal fluctuation. This allows for highthroughput characterization of a large number of cells simultaneously, which represents a significant advantage over current methods. The results in terms of the effective loss and storage moduli indicate the generic behavior of a viscoelastic material, characterized by power laws with exponents between 0 and 1.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  6. J. Liu, G. Lykotrafitis, M. Dao, and S. Suresh, "Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 4937-4942 (2007).
  7. R. Mukhopadhyay, G. Lim, and M. Wortis, "Echinocyte shapes: bending, stretching, and shear determine spicule shape and spacing," Biophys. J. 82, 1756-1772 (2002).
  8. G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).
  9. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).
  10. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
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  21. M. Dao, C. T. Lim, and S. Suresh, "Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers," J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 2259-2280 (2003).
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  35. L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
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2007

J. Liu, G. Lykotrafitis, M. Dao, and S. Suresh, "Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 4937-4942 (2007).

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

W. J. Cottrell, J. D. Wilson, and T. H. Foster, "Microscope enabling multimodality imaging, angle-resolved scattering, and scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 2348-2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Lin, N. Gov, and F. L. H. Brown, "Nonequilibrium membrane fluctuations driven by active proteins," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Suresh, "Mechanical response of human red blood cells in health and disease: Some structure-property-function relationships," J. Mater. Res. 21, 1871-1877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).

2005

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

2004

N. Gov, "Membrane undulations driven by force fluctuations of active proteins," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 268104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Lin and F. L. H. Brown, "Brownian dynamics in Fourier space: Membrane simulations over long length and time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,256001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Dao, C. T. Lim, and S. Suresh, "Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers," J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 2259-2280 (2003).

N. Gov, A. G. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement and tension of red blood cell membranes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 228101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Gov, A. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement of red blood cell membrane fluctuations," Biophys. J. 84, 486A-486A (2003).

G. Bao and S. Suresh, "Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials," Nat. Mater 2, 715-725 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Mukhopadhyay, G. Lim, and M. Wortis, "Echinocyte shapes: bending, stretching, and shear determine spicule shape and spacing," Biophys. J. 82, 1756-1772 (2002).

2001

M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, "Microscope-based static light scattering apparatus," Opt. Lett. 26, 890892 (2001).

G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, "Dynamic light scattering in localized coherence volumes," Opt. Lett. 26, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Levine and T. C. Lubensky, "One- and two-particle microrheology," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1774-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. G. Mason, and D. A. Weitz, "Optical measurements of frequency-dependent linear viscoelastic moduli of complex fluids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1250-1253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. E. Discher, N. Mohandas, and E. A. Evans, "Molecular maps of red cell deformation: hidden elasticity and in situ connectivity," Science 266, 1032-1035 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Zilker, M. Ziegler, and E. Sackmann, "Spectral-analysis of erythrocyte flickering in the 0.3-4-Mu-M-1 regime by microinterferometry combined with fast image-processing," Phys. Rev. A 46, 7998-8002 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Levin and R. Korenstein, "Membrane fluctuations in erythrocytes are linked to Mgatp-dependent dyanamic assembly of the membrane skeleton," Biophys. J. 60, 733-737 (1991).

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

1984

H. Engelhardt, H. Gaub, and E. Sackmann, "Viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes in high-frequency electric fields," Nature 307, 378-380 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. P. Sheetz, and S. J. Singer, "On the mechanism of ATP-induced shape changes in human erythrocyte membranes. I. The role of the spectrin complex," J Cell Biol. 73, 638-646 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon, "Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes," J. Phys. 36, 1035-1047 (1975).

Almagor, A.

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

Bao, G.

G. Bao and S. Suresh, "Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials," Nat. Mater 2, 715-725 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bayerl, T. M.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Berman, L. E.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Best, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

Best-Popescu, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bitler, A.

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourdieu, L.

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brochard, F.

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon, "Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes," J. Phys. 36, 1035-1047 (1975).

Brown, F. L. H.

L. C. L. Lin, N. Gov, and F. L. H. Brown, "Nonequilibrium membrane fluctuations driven by active proteins," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Lin and F. L. H. Brown, "Brownian dynamics in Fourier space: Membrane simulations over long length and time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,256001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. P.

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chatenay, D.

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cottrell, W. J.

Crocker, J. C.

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dao, M.

J. Liu, G. Lykotrafitis, M. Dao, and S. Suresh, "Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 4937-4942 (2007).

M. Dao, C. T. Lim, and S. Suresh, "Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers," J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 2259-2280 (2003).

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

Deng, L. H.

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Discher, D. E.

D. E. Discher, N. Mohandas, and E. A. Evans, "Molecular maps of red cell deformation: hidden elasticity and in situ connectivity," Science 266, 1032-1035 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Engelhardt, H.

H. Engelhardt, H. Gaub, and E. Sackmann, "Viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes in high-frequency electric fields," Nature 307, 378-380 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Evans, E. A.

D. E. Discher, N. Mohandas, and E. A. Evans, "Molecular maps of red cell deformation: hidden elasticity and in situ connectivity," Science 266, 1032-1035 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fabry, B.

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fairbank, N. J.

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

Foster, T. H.

Fredberg, J. J.

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaub, H.

H. Engelhardt, H. Gaub, and E. Sackmann, "Viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes in high-frequency electric fields," Nature 307, 378-380 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gisler, T.

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gov, N.

L. C. L. Lin, N. Gov, and F. L. H. Brown, "Nonequilibrium membrane fluctuations driven by active proteins," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gov, "Membrane undulations driven by force fluctuations of active proteins," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 268104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gov, A. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement of red blood cell membrane fluctuations," Biophys. J. 84, 486A-486A (2003).

N. Gov, A. G. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement and tension of red blood cell membranes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 228101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grest, G. S.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harlepp, S.

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helfer, E.

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

Johnson, S. J.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Kanellas, D.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Kaplan, P. D.

M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, "Microscope-based static light scattering apparatus," Opt. Lett. 26, 890892 (2001).

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korenstein, R.

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Levin and R. Korenstein, "Membrane fluctuations in erythrocytes are linked to Mgatp-dependent dyanamic assembly of the membrane skeleton," Biophys. J. 60, 733-737 (1991).

Laposata, M.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lei, N.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, J. F.

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon, "Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes," J. Phys. 36, 1035-1047 (1975).

Levin, S.

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Levin and R. Korenstein, "Membrane fluctuations in erythrocytes are linked to Mgatp-dependent dyanamic assembly of the membrane skeleton," Biophys. J. 60, 733-737 (1991).

Levine, A. J.

A. J. Levine and T. C. Lubensky, "One- and two-particle microrheology," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1774-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. T.

M. Dao, C. T. Lim, and S. Suresh, "Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers," J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 2259-2280 (2003).

Lim, G.

R. Mukhopadhyay, G. Lim, and M. Wortis, "Echinocyte shapes: bending, stretching, and shear determine spicule shape and spacing," Biophys. J. 82, 1756-1772 (2002).

Lin, L. C. L.

L. C. L. Lin, N. Gov, and F. L. H. Brown, "Nonequilibrium membrane fluctuations driven by active proteins," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Lin and F. L. H. Brown, "Brownian dynamics in Fourier space: Membrane simulations over long length and time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,256001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, G. Lykotrafitis, M. Dao, and S. Suresh, "Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 4937-4942 (2007).

Lubensky, T. C.

A. J. Levine and T. C. Lubensky, "One- and two-particle microrheology," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1774-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lykotrafitis, G.

J. Liu, G. Lykotrafitis, M. Dao, and S. Suresh, "Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 4937-4942 (2007).

MacKintosh, F. C.

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maksym, G. N.

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manley, S.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mason, T. G.

T. G. Mason, and D. A. Weitz, "Optical measurements of frequency-dependent linear viscoelastic moduli of complex fluids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1250-1253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Millet, E.

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohandas, N.

D. E. Discher, N. Mohandas, and E. A. Evans, "Molecular maps of red cell deformation: hidden elasticity and in situ connectivity," Science 266, 1032-1035 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, K. G.

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukhopadhyay, R.

R. Mukhopadhyay, G. Lim, and M. Wortis, "Echinocyte shapes: bending, stretching, and shear determine spicule shape and spacing," Biophys. J. 82, 1756-1772 (2002).

Noack, H.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Park, Y. K.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penfold, J.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Petsche, I. B.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Coherence properties of red blood cell membrane motions," Phys. Rev. E. 76, 031902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Optical measurement of cell membrane tension," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

G. Popescu and A. Dogariu, "Dynamic light scattering in localized coherence volumes," Opt. Lett. 26, 551-553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A. K.

M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, "Microscope-based static light scattering apparatus," Opt. Lett. 26, 890892 (2001).

Puig-de-Morales, M.

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

Rennie, A. R.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Robert, J.

E. Helfer, S. Harlepp, L. Bourdieu, J. Robert, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. Chatenay, "Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 457-460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sackmann, E.

A. Zilker, M. Ziegler, and E. Sackmann, "Spectral-analysis of erythrocyte flickering in the 0.3-4-Mu-M-1 regime by microinterferometry combined with fast image-processing," Phys. Rev. A 46, 7998-8002 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

H. Engelhardt, H. Gaub, and E. Sackmann, "Viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes in high-frequency electric fields," Nature 307, 378-380 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Safinya, C. R.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Safran, S.

N. Gov, A. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement of red blood cell membrane fluctuations," Biophys. J. 84, 486A-486A (2003).

N. Gov, A. G. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement and tension of red blood cell membranes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 228101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sheetz, M. P.

M. P. Sheetz, and S. J. Singer, "On the mechanism of ATP-induced shape changes in human erythrocyte membranes. I. The role of the spectrin complex," J Cell Biol. 73, 638-646 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Singer, S. J.

M. P. Sheetz, and S. J. Singer, "On the mechanism of ATP-induced shape changes in human erythrocyte membranes. I. The role of the spectrin complex," J Cell Biol. 73, 638-646 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G.

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suresh, S.

J. Liu, G. Lykotrafitis, M. Dao, and S. Suresh, "Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte," Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 4937-4942 (2007).

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

S. Suresh, "Mechanical response of human red blood cells in health and disease: Some structure-property-function relationships," J. Mater. Res. 21, 1871-1877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Dao, C. T. Lim, and S. Suresh, "Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers," J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 2259-2280 (2003).

G. Bao and S. Suresh, "Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials," Nat. Mater 2, 715-725 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svoboda, K.

C. F. Schmidt, K. Svoboda, N. Lei, I. B. Petsche, L. E. Berman, C. R. Safinya, and G. S. Grest, "Existence of a flat phase in red cell membrane skeletons," Science 259, 952-955 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. K.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Trepat, X.

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, K. T.

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

Tuvia, S.

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, M. T.

M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, "Microscope-based static light scattering apparatus," Opt. Lett. 26, 890892 (2001).

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, E. R.

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

L. H. Deng, X. Trepat, J. P. Butler, E. Millet, K. G. Morgan, D. A. Weitz, and J. J. Fredberg, "Fast and slow dynamics of the cytoskeleton," Nat. Mater. 5, 636-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, P. D. Kaplan, and D. A. Weitz, "Microscope-based static light scattering apparatus," Opt. Lett. 26, 890892 (2001).

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Mason, and D. A. Weitz, "Optical measurements of frequency-dependent linear viscoelastic moduli of complex fluids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1250-1253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. D.

Wo, W. H.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

Wortis, M.

R. Mukhopadhyay, G. Lim, and M. Wortis, "Echinocyte shapes: bending, stretching, and shear determine spicule shape and spacing," Biophys. J. 82, 1756-1772 (2002).

Yedgar, S.

S. Tuvia, A. Almagor, A. Bitler, S. Levin, R. Korenstein, and S. Yedgar, "Cell membrane fluctuations are regulated by medium macroviscosity: evidence for a metabolic driving force," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 5045-5049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

J. C. Crocker, M. T. Valentine, E. R. Weeks, T. Gisler, P. D. Kaplan, A. G. Yodh, and D. A. Weitz, "Two-point microrheology of inhomogeneous soft materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, M.

A. Zilker, M. Ziegler, and E. Sackmann, "Spectral-analysis of erythrocyte flickering in the 0.3-4-Mu-M-1 regime by microinterferometry combined with fast image-processing," Phys. Rev. A 46, 7998-8002 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zilker, A.

A. Zilker, M. Ziegler, and E. Sackmann, "Spectral-analysis of erythrocyte flickering in the 0.3-4-Mu-M-1 regime by microinterferometry combined with fast image-processing," Phys. Rev. A 46, 7998-8002 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zilman, A.

N. Gov, A. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement of red blood cell membrane fluctuations," Biophys. J. 84, 486A-486A (2003).

Zilman, A. G.

N. Gov, A. G. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement and tension of red blood cell membranes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 228101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol.

L. H. Deng, N. J. Fairbank, B. Fabry, P. G. Smith, and G. N. Maksym, "Localized mechanical stress induces time-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening in cultured airway smooth muscle cells," Am. J. Physiol.:Cell Physiol. 287, C440-C448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

S. J. Johnson, T. M. Bayerl, W. H. Wo, H. Noack, J. Penfold, R. K. Thomas, D. Kanellas, A. R. Rennie, and E. Sackmann, "Coupling of spectrin and polylysine to phospholipid monolayers studied by specular reflection of Neutrons," Biophys. J. 60, 1017-1025 (1991).

N. Gov, A. Zilman, and S. Safran, "Cytoskeleton confinement of red blood cell membrane fluctuations," Biophys. J. 84, 486A-486A (2003).

S. Levin and R. Korenstein, "Membrane fluctuations in erythrocytes are linked to Mgatp-dependent dyanamic assembly of the membrane skeleton," Biophys. J. 60, 733-737 (1991).

R. Mukhopadhyay, G. Lim, and M. Wortis, "Echinocyte shapes: bending, stretching, and shear determine spicule shape and spacing," Biophys. J. 82, 1756-1772 (2002).

J Cell Biol.

M. P. Sheetz, and S. J. Singer, "On the mechanism of ATP-induced shape changes in human erythrocyte membranes. I. The role of the spectrin complex," J Cell Biol. 73, 638-646 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol.

M. Puig-de-Morales, K. T. Turner, J. P. Butler, J. J. Fredberg, and S. Suresh, "Viscoelasticity of the human red blood cell," J. Appl. Physiol. 293, 597-605 (2007).

J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.

G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 11, 040503 (2006).

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. 10, 060503 (2005).

J. Chem. Phys.

L. C. L. Lin, N. Gov, and F. L. H. Brown, "Nonequilibrium membrane fluctuations driven by active proteins," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

S. Suresh, "Mechanical response of human red blood cells in health and disease: Some structure-property-function relationships," J. Mater. Res. 21, 1871-1877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mech. Phys. Solids

M. Dao, C. T. Lim, and S. Suresh, "Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers," J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 2259-2280 (2003).

J. Phys.

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon, "Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes," J. Phys. 36, 1035-1047 (1975).

Nat. Mater

G. Bao and S. Suresh, "Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials," Nat. Mater 2, 715-725 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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