Abstract

A recent advancement was achieved in the integration and miniaturization of a binocular head-worn projection display (HWPD) conceived for fully mobile users. The devised display, referred to as Mobile HWPD (M-HWPD), offers see-through capability through custom-designed, light-weight projection optics and an integrated commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) retro-reflective screen to display full color stereoscopic rendered images augmenting the real world. Moreover, the light-weight optical device (i.e., approximately 8g per eye) has the ability to project clear images at three different locations within near- or far-field observation depths without loss of image quality. In this paper, we first demonstrate the miniaturization of the optics, the optical performance, and the integration of these components with the retro-reflective screen to produce an M-HWPD prototype. We then show results that demonstrate the feasibility of superimposing computer-generated images on a real outdoor scene with the M-HWPD.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays,” J. Display Technol. 3, 199–216 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Information Disp. 10, (1994).
  3. J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).
  4. R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).
  5. A. Oranchak and J. Rolland, “Elastic head mounting platform cap,” US Patent Filed July 2006.
  6. L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, A. Cassanho, H. Jenssen, and M. Bass, “Review of the properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for new Emissive Displays,” J. Display Technol. 2, 68 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Fidopiastis. User-centered virtual environment assessment and design for cognitive rehabilitation applications. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Central Florida (2006).
  9. H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

2007 (1)

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).

1994 (1)

R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Information Disp. 10, (1994).

Bass, M.

Biocca, F.

J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).

Bogaert, L.

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
[Crossref]

Cakmakci, O.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays,” J. Display Technol. 3, 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cassanho, A.

Fidopiastis, C.

C. Fidopiastis. User-centered virtual environment assessment and design for cognitive rehabilitation applications. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Central Florida (2006).

Fischer, R. E.

R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Information Disp. 10, (1994).

Giel, B.V.

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
[Crossref]

Ha, Y.

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).

J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).

Hamza-Lup, F.

J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).

Hockel, H.

H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

Jenssen, H.

Johnson, E. G.

H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

Martins, R.

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).

J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).

Martins, R. F.

H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

Meuret, Y.

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
[Crossref]

Milliez, J.

Oranchak, A.

A. Oranchak and J. Rolland, “Elastic head mounting platform cap,” US Patent Filed July 2006.

Rapaport, A.

Rolland, J.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays,” J. Display Technol. 3, 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Oranchak and J. Rolland, “Elastic head mounting platform cap,” US Patent Filed July 2006.

Rolland, J. P.

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).

Rolland, J.P.

J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).

Shaoulov, V.

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).

Sung, J.

H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

Thienpont, H.

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
[Crossref]

Information Disp. (1)

R. E. Fischer, “Optics for head-mounted displays,” Information Disp. 10, (1994).

J. Display Technol. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, B.V. Giel, and H. Thienpont, “LED based full color stereoscopic projection system,” Proc. SPIE 6489, (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Martins, V. Shaoulov, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Projection based head-mounted displays for wearable computers” Proc. SPIE 5442, (2004).

Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Hockel, R. F. Martins, J. Sung, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of trihedral corner-cube arrays using analog exposure based on phase masks,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5720, (2005).

Other (3)

A. Oranchak and J. Rolland, “Elastic head mounting platform cap,” US Patent Filed July 2006.

J.P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins “Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative Augmented Reality Applications, Presence: SI Immersive Projection Technology, 5, (2005).

C. Fidopiastis. User-centered virtual environment assessment and design for cognitive rehabilitation applications. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Central Florida (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) First order layout for one eye of the see-through M-HWPD with retro-reflective screen placed along Path 2. (b) Assembly of a binocular see-through M-HWPD with robust titanium mounting structures and the integrated retro-reflective screen. (c) User wearing the binocular M-HWPD

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Monocular lens-mount assembly.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The MTF plots for a projected scene located at (a) 1.5 m, (b) 3.5 m, and (c) infinity based on a 12 mm pupil diameter for the projection optics.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distortion plots for a projected scene located at (a) 1.5 m, (b) 3.5 m, and (c) infinity across the full 12 mm of the projection optics.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Monocular Lens-Mount Assembly.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Image (a) represents the test image to be superimposed in the outdoor scene (b) is the augmented reality image captured outdoors by a digital camera located at the projection optics exit pupil location. While currently at reduced resolution, given the need for new microstructure films, the parrots were successfully superimposed on outdoor trees seen as a detailed texture in the background.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h projection = z projection tan ( θ half FOV ) .
Magnification = ( h image h OLED ) = ( z image z OLED ) .

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