Abstract

A method to non-invasively and quantitatively measure muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) using broadband continuous-wave diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is presented. The method obtained SmO2 by first correcting NIR spectra for absorption and scattering of skin pigment and fat, then fitting to a Taylor expansion attenuation model. A non-linear least squares optimization algorithm with set boundary constraints on the fitting parameters was used to fit the model to the acquired spectra. A data preprocessing/optimization scheme for accurately determining the initial values needed for the optimization was also employed. The method was evaluated on simulated muscle spectra with 4 different scattering properties, as well as on in vivo forearm spectra from 5 healthy volunteer subjects during arterial occlusion. Measurement repeatability was assessed on 24 healthy volunteers with 5 repeated measurements, each separated by at least 48 hours.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

M. I. R. Pereira, P. S. C. Gomes, and Y. N. Bhambhani, "A brief review of the use of near infrared spectroscopy with particular interest in resistance exercise," Sports Med. 37, 615-624 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. C. Sorensen and G. Greisen, "Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. B. Wassenaar and J. G. H. van den Brand, "Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in people with dark skin pigmentation," J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 19, 195-199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Buono, P. W. Miller, C. Hom, R. S. Pozos, and F. W. Kolkhorst, "Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle," Jpn. J. Physiol. 55, 241-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, M. R. Landry, O. O. Soyemi, M. A. Shear, D. S. Anunciacion and B. R. Soller, "Simultaneous correction of the influence of skin color and fat on tissue spectroscopy by use of a two-distance fiber-optic probe and orthogonalization technique," Opt. Lett. 30, 2269-2281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. K. Harrison, "Optical measurement of tissue oxygen saturation," Int. J. Low. Extrem. Wounds. 1, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, "Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Komiyama, V. Quaresima, H. Shigematsu and M. Ferrari, "Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation," Clin. Sci. 101, 715-718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rolfe, "In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 715-754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia and H. Jiang, "Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements," Appl. Opt. 39, 5256-5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, B. R. Soller, S. Kaur, K. Perras, and S. Vander, "Investigation of noninvasive in vivo blood hematocrit measurement using NIR reflectance spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 294-299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Suzuki, S. Takasaki, T. Ozaki and Y. Kobayashi, "A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3597, 582-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Homma and A. Kagaya, "Detection of oxygen consumption in different forearm muscles during handgrip exercise by spatially resolved NIR spectroscopy," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 327-332 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, T. Binzoni, and V. Quaresima, "Oxidative metabolism in muscle," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 677-683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 649-659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, and A. Kagaya, "Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signal in the measurement of human muscle," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418-424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, P. Kirkpatrick, K. Nahid, M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 2389, 486-495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).

1992

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy. "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, ‘‘Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,’’Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Swain and R. N. Pittman, "Oxygen exchange in the microcirculation of hamster retractor muscle," Am. J. Physiol. 256, H247-H255 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P van der Zee, S. Arridge, S Wray and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical path length through tissue from direct time of flight measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

F. F. Jobsis, "Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters," Science 198, 1264-1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alampi, D.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, L. D.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anunciacion, D. S.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy. "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backer, D. D.

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbee, R. W.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, B.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beilman, G. J.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhambhani, Y. N.

M. I. R. Pereira, P. S. C. Gomes, and Y. N. Bhambhani, "A brief review of the use of near infrared spectroscopy with particular interest in resistance exercise," Sports Med. 37, 615-624 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binzoni, T.

M. Ferrari, T. Binzoni, and V. Quaresima, "Oxidative metabolism in muscle," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 677-683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghuis, M. S.

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boushel, R.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brightwell, A.

Buchele, G.

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bülow, J.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buono, M. J.

M. J. Buono, P. W. Miller, C. Hom, R. S. Pozos, and F. W. Kolkhorst, "Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle," Jpn. J. Physiol. 55, 241-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busani, S.

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnohan, M.

Carollo, T.

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, ‘‘Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,’’Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Colier, W. N.

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collini, S.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C. E.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 649-659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, P. Kirkpatrick, K. Nahid, M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 2389, 486-495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy. "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P van der Zee, S. Arridge, S Wray and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical path length through tissue from direct time of flight measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottone, G.

Creteur, J.

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Blasi, R. A.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 649-659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, P. Kirkpatrick, K. Nahid, M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 2389, 486-495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy. "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P van der Zee, S. Arridge, S Wray and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical path length through tissue from direct time of flight measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

Fantini, S.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier and E. Gratton, "Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principal, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Komiyama, V. Quaresima, H. Shigematsu and M. Ferrari, "Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation," Clin. Sci. 101, 715-718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, T. Binzoni, and V. Quaresima, "Oxidative metabolism in muscle," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 677-683 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Filho, I. P. T.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flore, I.

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier and E. Gratton, "Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini-Fantini, M. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fukunaga, T.

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, and A. Kagaya, "Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signal in the measurement of human muscle," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418-424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girardis, M.

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, P. S. C.

M. I. R. Pereira, P. S. C. Gomes, and Y. N. Bhambhani, "A brief review of the use of near infrared spectroscopy with particular interest in resistance exercise," Sports Med. 37, 615-624 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzales-Alonzo, J.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier and E. Gratton, "Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greisen, G.

L. C. Sorensen and G. Greisen, "Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaoka, T.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, D. K.

D. K. Harrison, "Optical measurement of tissue oxygen saturation," Int. J. Low. Extrem. Wounds. 1, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hom, C.

M. J. Buono, P. W. Miller, C. Hom, R. S. Pozos, and F. W. Kolkhorst, "Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle," Jpn. J. Physiol. 55, 241-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, S.

S. Homma and A. Kagaya, "Detection of oxygen consumption in different forearm muscles during handgrip exercise by spatially resolved NIR spectroscopy," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 327-332 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, and A. Kagaya, "Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signal in the measurement of human muscle," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418-424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hueber, D.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ivatury, R. R.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Jobsis, F. F.

F. F. Jobsis, "Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters," Science 198, 1264-1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, L. R.

Kagaya, A.

S. Homma and A. Kagaya, "Detection of oxygen consumption in different forearm muscles during handgrip exercise by spatially resolved NIR spectroscopy," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 327-332 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, and A. Kagaya, "Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signal in the measurement of human muscle," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418-424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Katsumura, T.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaur, S.

Kirkpatrick, P.

S. J. Matcher, P. Kirkpatrick, K. Nahid, M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 2389, 486-495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kjær, M.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

S. Suzuki, S. Takasaki, T. Ozaki and Y. Kobayashi, "A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3597, 582-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolkhorst, F. W.

M. J. Buono, P. W. Miller, C. Hom, R. S. Pozos, and F. W. Kolkhorst, "Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle," Jpn. J. Physiol. 55, 241-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komiyama, T.

T. Komiyama, V. Quaresima, H. Shigematsu and M. Ferrari, "Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation," Clin. Sci. 101, 715-718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudo, N.

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, "Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, L. Lin, N. Kudo, and M. Takahashi, "A near-infrared muscle oximeter that can correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer," Proc. SPIE 3257, 146-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, Y.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, M. R.

Langberg, H.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepanto, R.

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lin, L.

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, "Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, L. Lin, N. Kudo, and M. Takahashi, "A near-infrared muscle oximeter that can correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer," Proc. SPIE 3257, 146-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loschenov, V. B.

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, J. S.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier and E. Gratton, "Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marcu, L.

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, P. Kirkpatrick, K. Nahid, M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 2389, 486-495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).

Maulik, D.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauro, S.

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercieri, M.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micheels, R. H.

Miller, P. W.

M. J. Buono, P. W. Miller, C. Hom, R. S. Pozos, and F. W. Kolkhorst, "Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle," Jpn. J. Physiol. 55, 241-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mottola, L.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principal, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mowlem, J. D.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murase, N.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, D. E.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahid, K.

S. J. Matcher, P. Kirkpatrick, K. Nahid, M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 2389, 486-495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishio, S.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niwayama, M.

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, "Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, L. Lin, N. Kudo, and M. Takahashi, "A near-infrared muscle oximeter that can correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer," Proc. SPIE 3257, 146-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, J.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bülow and M. Kjær, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortner, J. P.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osada, T.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

S. Suzuki, S. Takasaki, T. Ozaki and Y. Kobayashi, "A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3597, 582-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmisani, S.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papaioannou, T.

Pasetto, A.

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
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Patterson, M. S.

Paunescu, L. A.

Pereira, M. I. R.

M. I. R. Pereira, P. S. C. Gomes, and Y. N. Bhambhani, "A brief review of the use of near infrared spectroscopy with particular interest in resistance exercise," Sports Med. 37, 615-624 (2007).
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Piantadosi, C. A.

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinto, G.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
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K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, R. N.

D. P. Swain and R. N. Pittman, "Oxygen exchange in the microcirculation of hamster retractor muscle," Am. J. Physiol. 256, H247-H255 (1989).
[PubMed]

Pozos, R. S.

M. J. Buono, P. W. Miller, C. Hom, R. S. Pozos, and F. W. Kolkhorst, "Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle," Jpn. J. Physiol. 55, 241-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preyer, N. W.

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principal, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Komiyama, V. Quaresima, H. Shigematsu and M. Ferrari, "Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation," Clin. Sci. 101, 715-718 (2001).
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M. Ferrari, T. Binzoni, and V. Quaresima, "Oxidative metabolism in muscle," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 677-683 (1997).
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M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolfe, P.

P. Rolfe, "In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 715-754 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romano, R.

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, W.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
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Ross, R.

Sako, T.

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifert, R. P.

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, J.

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, "Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shear, M. A.

Shiga, T.

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, L. Lin, N. Kudo, and M. Takahashi, "A near-infrared muscle oximeter that can correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer," Proc. SPIE 3257, 146-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shigematsu, H.

T. Komiyama, V. Quaresima, H. Shigematsu and M. Ferrari, "Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation," Clin. Sci. 101, 715-718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soldati, G.

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soller, B. R.

Sorensen, L. C.

L. C. Sorensen and G. Greisen, "Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soyemi, O. O.

Spiess, B.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stankovic, M. R.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
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Stratonnikov, A. A.

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
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Stubblefied, P. G.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefied, D. Maulik and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and requency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
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Sutton, J. P.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
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Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, S. Takasaki, T. Ozaki and Y. Kobayashi, "A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3597, 582-592 (1999).
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Swain, D. P.

D. P. Swain and R. N. Pittman, "Oxygen exchange in the microcirculation of hamster retractor muscle," Am. J. Physiol. 256, H247-H255 (1989).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, L. Lin, N. Kudo, and M. Takahashi, "A near-infrared muscle oximeter that can correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer," Proc. SPIE 3257, 146-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takasaki, S.

S. Suzuki, S. Takasaki, T. Ozaki and Y. Kobayashi, "A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE 3597, 582-592 (1999).
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Terner, J.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
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van Beekvelt, M. C.

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
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van den Brand, J. G. H.

E. B. Wassenaar and J. G. H. van den Brand, "Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in people with dark skin pigmentation," J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 19, 195-199 (2005).
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van Engelen, B. G.

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
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Vander, S.

Vincent, J. L.

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
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S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini-Fantini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
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Ward, K. R.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. T. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 28-44 (2006).
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Wassenaar, E. B.

E. B. Wassenaar and J. G. H. van den Brand, "Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in people with dark skin pigmentation," J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 19, 195-199 (2005).
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Wevers, R. A.

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
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Wilson, B. C.

Yamamoto, K.

J. Shao, L. Lin, M. Niwayama, N. Kudo, and K. Yamamoto, "Theoretical and experimental studies on linear and nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of muscle oxygenation using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Eng. 40, 2293-2301 (2001).
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L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, L. Lin, N. Kudo, and M. Takahashi, "A near-infrared muscle oximeter that can correct the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer," Proc. SPIE 3257, 146-155 (1998).
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Yang, Y.

Yodh, A. G.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
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Zhang, S.

Zhang, Y.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
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Acta Physiol. Scand.

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
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Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.

S. Homma and A. Kagaya, "Detection of oxygen consumption in different forearm muscles during handgrip exercise by spatially resolved NIR spectroscopy," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 327-332 (1997).
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Am. J. Physiol.

D. P. Swain and R. N. Pittman, "Oxygen exchange in the microcirculation of hamster retractor muscle," Am. J. Physiol. 256, H247-H255 (1989).
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Anal. Biochem.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms," Anal. Biochem. 227, 54-68 (1995).
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Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

P. Rolfe, "In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 715-754 (2000).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biol. Psychiatry

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Appl. Physiol.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principal, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Sci.

M. C. van Beekvelt, M. S. Borghuis, B. G. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, and W. N. Colier, "Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-IR spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle," Clin. Sci. 101, 21-28 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Komiyama, V. Quaresima, H. Shigematsu and M. Ferrari, "Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation," Clin. Sci. 101, 715-718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Front Med. Biol. Eng.

L. Lin, M. Niwayama, T. Shiga, N. Kudo, M. Takahashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Influence of a fat layer on muscle oxygenation measurement using near-IR spectroscopy: quantitative analysis based on two-layered phantom and Monte Carlo simulation," Front Med. Biol. Eng. 10, 43-58 (2000).
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D. K. Harrison, "Optical measurement of tissue oxygen saturation," Int. J. Low. Extrem. Wounds. 1, 191-201 (2002).
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Intensive Care Med.

M. Girardis, L. Rinaldi, S. Busani, I. Flore, S. Mauro, and A. Pasetto, "Muscle perfusion and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in septic-shock and non-septic-shock patients," Intensive Care Med. 29, 1173-1176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. De Blasi, S. Palmisani, D. Alampi, M. Mercieri, R. Romano, S. Collini, and G. Pinto, "Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock," Intensive Care Med. 31, 1661-1668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Creteur, T. Carollo, G. Soldati, G. Buchele, D. D. Backer, J. L. Vincent, "The prognostic value of muscle StO2 in septic patients," Intensive Care Med. 33, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

L. C. Sorensen and G. Greisen, "Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hamaoka, T. Katsumura, N. Murase, S. Nishio, T. Osada, T. Sako, H. Higuchi, Y. Kurosawa, T. Shimomitsu, M. Miwa, and B. Chance, "Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygentation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 102-105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Myers, L. D. Anderson, R. P. Seifert, J. P. Ortner, C. E. Cooper, G. J. Beilman and J. D. Mowlem, "Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, and A. Kagaya, "Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signal in the measurement of human muscle," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418-424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Monit. Comput.

E. B. Wassenaar and J. G. H. van den Brand, "Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in people with dark skin pigmentation," J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 19, 195-199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Extinction coefficients for HHb, O2Hb, water [14] and reduced scattering coefficient of the forearm [35]. Water spectrum magnified by 103. Note that the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum has a negative slope while the extinction spectrum of O2Hb has a positive slope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of the in vivo data analysis procedure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated attenuation spectra with varying SO2 values (a) pure absorption spectra. and (b-d) tissue spectra calculated from a diffusion theory model with scattering properties of forearm, calf and intact head respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of real versus estimated SO2 results from simulated spectra with different scattering properties. The diagonal line represents perfect prediction

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A set of attenuation spectra from an African America subject in the arterial occlusion study (a) before and (b) after skin and fat correction.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Calculated SmO2 values for an Africa American subject in the arterial occlusion study. The occlusion was started at 198 second, and released at 977 second. (b) Comparison of one measured skin and fat corrected spectrum, fit results and residual attenuation spectra from the same subject.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Prediction metrics from simulated spectra with different scattering properties

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of SmO2 (%) measurements from our study at specific time-points during arterial occlusion with literature values [41, 42]a

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of baseline StO2 (%) values measured on healthy human arm or hand

Equations (13)

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SmO 2 = c ( O 2 Hb + O 2 Mb ) c ( O 2 Hb + O 2 Mb ) + c ( HHb + Mb )
A mod el ( λ ) = ln I 0 ( λ ) I ( λ ) = ( c 0 + c 1 λ ) + < L > μ a ( λ )
μ a ( λ ) = [ c HHb + Mb ε HHb ( λ ) + c O 2 Hb + O 2 Mb ε Hb O 2 ( λ ) + c wat ε wat ( λ ) ] ln ( 10 )
A exp ( λ ) = ln I ref ( λ ) I ( λ )
χ 2 = λ i = λ min λ i = λ max [ A mod el ( λ i ) A exp ( λ i ) ] 2 = min
A exp ( λ ) = ln ( 10 ) L μ a ( λ )
A exp ( λ ) = ln [ sinh ( σ ( λ ) μ s ' ( λ ) ) 2 π sinh ( σ ( λ ) d ) ]
σ ( λ ) = 3 μ a ( λ ) [ μ a ( λ ) + μ s ' ( λ ) ]
μ s ' ( λ ) = 5.1 λ × 10 3 + 11
μ s ' ( λ ) = 8.9 λ × 10 3 + 16.3
μ s ' ( λ ) = 6.5 λ × 10 3 + 14.5
A exp ( λ ) = ln ( I r ( λ ) I s ( λ ) )
RMSEP = i = 1 N ( y ̂ i y i ) 2 N

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