Abstract

State-of-the-art microscopy techniques (e.g., atomic force microscopy, scanning-tunneling microscopy, and optical tweezers) are sensitive to atomic-scale (100 pm) displacements. Yet, sample drift limits the ultimate potential of many of these techniques. We demonstrate a general solution for sample control in 3D using back-scattered detection (BSD) in both air and water. BSD off a silicon disk fabricated on a cover slip enabled 19 pm lateral localization precision (Δf = 0.1–50 Hz) with low crosstalk between axes (≤3%). We achieved atomic-scale stabilization (88, 79, and 98 pm, in x, y, and z, respectively; Δf = 0.1–50 Hz) and registration (≈50 pm (rms), N = 14, Δt = 90 s) of a sample in 3D that allows for stabilized scanning with uniform steps using low laser power (1 mW). Thus, BSD provides a precise method to locally measure and thereby actively control sample position for diverse applications, especially those with limited optical access such as scanning probe microscopy, and magnetic tweezers.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. R. Carter, G. M. King, T. A. Ulrich, W. Halsey, D. Alchenberger, and T. T. Perkins, "Stabilization of an optical microscope to 0.1 nm in three dimensions," Appl. Opt. 46, 421-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, "Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Moon and H. I. Smith, "Nanometer-precision pattern registration for scanning-probe lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 3083-3087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

M. Capitanio, R. Cicchi, and F. S. Pavone, "Position control and optical manipulation for nanotechnology applications," Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. M. King and J. A. Golovchenko, "Probing nanotube-nanopore interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 216103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, P. N. Everett, and H. I. Smith, "Dynamic alignment control for fluid-immersion lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2607-2610 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. G. Huisstede, K. O. van der Werf, M. L. Bennink, and V. Subramaniam, "Force detection in optical tweezers using backscattered light," Opt. Express 13, 1113-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, "Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules," Science 301, 1914-1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. J. Lang, C. L. Asbury, J. W. Shaevitz, and S. M. Block, "An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies," Biophys. J. 83, 491-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

J. Kohler, M. Albrecht, C. R. Musil, and E. Bucher, "Direct growth of nanostructures by deposition through an Si3N4 shadow mask," Physica E 4, 196-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, "Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Particle Tracking for Optical Tweezers by Forward Scattered Light," Microscopy Res. Tech. 44, 378-386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (5)

C. R. K. Marrian, and E. S. Snow, "Proximal probe lithography and surface modification," Microelectron. Eng. 32, 173-189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Swartzentruber, "Direct measurement of surface diffusion using atom-tracking scanning tunneling microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 459-462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, "Construction of Multiple-Beam Optical Traps with Nanometer-Resolution Position Sensing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066-1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, N. R. Heckenberg, and E. W. Dearden, "Determination of the force constant of a single-beam gradient trap by measurement of backscattered light," Appl. Opt. 35, 7112-7116 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Radmacher, M. Fritz, H. G. Hansma, and P. K. Hansma, "Direct observation of enzyme activity with the atomic force microscope," Science 265, 1577-1579 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

W. Denk and W. W. Webb, "Optical measurement of picometer displacements of transparent microscopic objects," Appl. Opt. 29, 2382-2391 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Eigler and E. K. Schweizer, "Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope," Nature 344, 524-526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

D. W. Pohl, and R. Moller, "Tracking tunneling microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 840-842 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, "Tracking kinesin-driven movements with nanometre-scale precision," Nature 331, 450-453 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, "Atomic Force Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930-933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber, and E. Weibel, "7X7 Reconstruction on Si(111) Resolved in Real Space," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 120-123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abbet, S.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbondanzieri, E. A.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abe, M.

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, M.

J. Kohler, M. Albrecht, C. R. Musil, and E. Bucher, "Direct growth of nanostructures by deposition through an Si3N4 shadow mask," Physica E 4, 196-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alchenberger, D.

Antonietti, J. M.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arenz, M.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asbury, C. L.

M. J. Lang, C. L. Asbury, J. W. Shaevitz, and S. M. Block, "An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies," Biophys. J. 83, 491-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, J. R.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, M. L.

Bergman, K.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binnig, G.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, "Atomic Force Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930-933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber, and E. Weibel, "7X7 Reconstruction on Si(111) Resolved in Real Space," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 120-123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, "Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules," Science 301, 1914-1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Lang, C. L. Asbury, J. W. Shaevitz, and S. M. Block, "An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies," Biophys. J. 83, 491-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, "Construction of Multiple-Beam Optical Traps with Nanometer-Resolution Position Sensing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066-1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucher, E.

J. Kohler, M. Albrecht, C. R. Musil, and E. Bucher, "Direct growth of nanostructures by deposition through an Si3N4 shadow mask," Physica E 4, 196-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Capitanio, M.

M. Capitanio, R. Cicchi, and F. S. Pavone, "Position control and optical manipulation for nanotechnology applications," Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. R.

Chadd, E. H.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicchi, R.

M. Capitanio, R. Cicchi, and F. S. Pavone, "Position control and optical manipulation for nanotechnology applications," Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. P.

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Custance, O.

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalal, R. V.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, "Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules," Science 301, 1914-1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dearden, E. W.

Dekker, C.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, "Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, N. H.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, "Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Eigler, D. M.

D. M. Eigler and E. K. Schweizer, "Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope," Nature 344, 524-526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everett, P. N.

E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, P. N. Everett, and H. I. Smith, "Dynamic alignment control for fluid-immersion lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2607-2610 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Florin, E. L.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, "Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Particle Tracking for Optical Tweezers by Forward Scattered Light," Microscopy Res. Tech. 44, 378-386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadis, D.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frederix, P. L.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friese, M. E. J.

Fritz, M.

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Radmacher, M. Fritz, H. G. Hansma, and P. K. Hansma, "Direct observation of enzyme activity with the atomic force microscope," Science 265, 1577-1579 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelles, J.

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, "Tracking kinesin-driven movements with nanometre-scale precision," Nature 331, 450-453 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, C.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, "Atomic Force Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930-933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber, and E. Weibel, "7X7 Reconstruction on Si(111) Resolved in Real Space," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 120-123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J. K.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gittes, F.

Golovchenko, J. A.

G. M. King and J. A. Golovchenko, "Probing nanotube-nanopore interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 216103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, J.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenleaf, W. J.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, S. P.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, "Construction of Multiple-Beam Optical Traps with Nanometer-Resolution Position Sensing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066-1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Habibpour, V.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halsey, W.

Hansma, H. G.

M. Radmacher, M. Fritz, H. G. Hansma, and P. K. Hansma, "Direct observation of enzyme activity with the atomic force microscope," Science 265, 1577-1579 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansma, P. K.

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Radmacher, M. Fritz, H. G. Hansma, and P. K. Hansma, "Direct observation of enzyme activity with the atomic force microscope," Science 265, 1577-1579 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harding, C. J.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Heiz, U.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirayama, S.

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horber, J. K. H.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, "Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Particle Tracking for Optical Tweezers by Forward Scattered Light," Microscopy Res. Tech. 44, 378-386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huisstede, J. H. G.

Kedrov, A.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keyser, U. F.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, "Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, G. M.

Koeleman, B. N.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, J.

J. Kohler, M. Albrecht, C. R. Musil, and E. Bucher, "Direct growth of nanostructures by deposition through an Si3N4 shadow mask," Physica E 4, 196-200 (1999).
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Krapf, D.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Landick, R.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, M. J.

M. J. Lang, C. L. Asbury, J. W. Shaevitz, and S. M. Block, "An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies," Biophys. J. 83, 491-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemay, S. G.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liou, G. F.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrian, C. R. K.

C. R. K. Marrian, and E. S. Snow, "Proximal probe lithography and surface modification," Microelectron. Eng. 32, 173-189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitsis, P. G.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, "Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules," Science 301, 1914-1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moller, R.

D. W. Pohl, and R. Moller, "Tracking tunneling microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 840-842 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mondol, M. K.

E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, P. N. Everett, and H. I. Smith, "Dynamic alignment control for fluid-immersion lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2607-2610 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E. E.

E. E. Moon and H. I. Smith, "Nanometer-precision pattern registration for scanning-probe lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 3083-3087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, P. N. Everett, and H. I. Smith, "Dynamic alignment control for fluid-immersion lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2607-2610 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morita, K.

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, D. J.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musil, C. R.

J. Kohler, M. Albrecht, C. R. Musil, and E. Bucher, "Direct growth of nanostructures by deposition through an Si3N4 shadow mask," Physica E 4, 196-200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Namikawa, T.

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

Oshea, S. J.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oyabu, N.

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

M. Capitanio, R. Cicchi, and F. S. Pavone, "Position control and optical manipulation for nanotechnology applications," Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, T. T.

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, and R. Moller, "Tracking tunneling microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 840-842 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pralle, A.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, "Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Particle Tracking for Optical Tweezers by Forward Scattered Light," Microscopy Res. Tech. 44, 378-386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prummer, M.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, "Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Particle Tracking for Optical Tweezers by Forward Scattered Light," Microscopy Res. Tech. 44, 378-386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, "Atomic Force Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930-933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radmacher, M.

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Radmacher, M. Fritz, H. G. Hansma, and P. K. Hansma, "Direct observation of enzyme activity with the atomic force microscope," Science 265, 1577-1579 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayment, T.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rohrer, H.

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber, and E. Weibel, "7X7 Reconstruction on Si(111) Resolved in Real Space," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 120-123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rottgen, M. A.

J. M. Antonietti, J. Gong, V. Habibpour, M. A. Rottgen, S. Abbet, C. J. Harding, M. Arenz, U. Heiz, and C. Gerber, "Micromechanical sensor for studying heats of surface reactions, adsorption, and cluster deposition processes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 054101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

Sapra, K. T.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheuring, S.

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. F.

F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Interference model for back-focal-plane displacement detection in optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 23, 7-9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, "Tracking kinesin-driven movements with nanometre-scale precision," Nature 331, 450-453 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, E. K.

D. M. Eigler and E. K. Schweizer, "Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope," Nature 344, 524-526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shaevitz, J. W.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Lang, C. L. Asbury, J. W. Shaevitz, and S. M. Block, "An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies," Biophys. J. 83, 491-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheetz, M. P.

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, "Tracking kinesin-driven movements with nanometre-scale precision," Nature 331, 450-453 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smeets, R. M. M.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

E. E. Moon and H. I. Smith, "Nanometer-precision pattern registration for scanning-probe lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 3083-3087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, P. N. Everett, and H. I. Smith, "Dynamic alignment control for fluid-immersion lithographies using interferometric-spatial-phase imaging," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2607-2610 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snow, E. S.

C. R. K. Marrian, and E. S. Snow, "Proximal probe lithography and surface modification," Microelectron. Eng. 32, 173-189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, "Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Particle Tracking for Optical Tweezers by Forward Scattered Light," Microscopy Res. Tech. 44, 378-386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, R. J.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, V.

Sugimoto, Y.

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, S. Hirayama, N. Oyabu, O. Custance, and S. Morita, "Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy," Nature Materials 4, 156-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartzentruber, B. S.

B. S. Swartzentruber, "Direct measurement of surface diffusion using atom-tracking scanning tunneling microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 459-462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, N. H.

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, T. A.

van der Does, J.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, "Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Werf, K. O.

Van Dorp, S.

U. F. Keyser, B. N. Koeleman, S. Van Dorp, D. Krapf, R. M. M. Smeets, S. G. Lemay, N. H. Dekker, and C. Dekker, "Direct force measurements on DNA in a solid-state nanopore," Nature Phys. 2, 473-477 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Visscher, K.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, "Construction of Multiple-Beam Optical Traps with Nanometer-Resolution Position Sensing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066-1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

Weibel, E.

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber, and E. Weibel, "7X7 Reconstruction on Si(111) Resolved in Real Space," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 120-123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M. E.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woodburn, C. N.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, S. J. Oshea, M. E. Welland, T. Rayment, J. K. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, "A Femtojoule Calorimeter Using Micromechanical Sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793-3798 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, T. Namikawa, K. Morita, N. Oyabu, and S. Morita, "Drift-compensated data acquisition performed at room temperature with frequency modulation atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (3)

M. J. Lang, C. L. Asbury, J. W. Shaevitz, and S. M. Block, "An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies," Biophys. J. 83, 491-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, "Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps," Biophys. J. 77, 2856-2863 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Thomson, M. Fritz, M. Radmacher, J. P. Cleveland, C. F. Schmidt, and P. K. Hansma, "Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy," Biophys. J. 70, 2421-2431 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (1)

D. J. Muller, K. T. Sapra, S. Scheuring, A. Kedrov, P. L. Frederix, D. Fotiadis, and A. Engel, "Single-molecule studies of membrane proteins," Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 16, 489-495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

M. Capitanio, R. Cicchi, and F. S. Pavone, "Position control and optical manipulation for nanotechnology applications," Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic showing a focused laser beam interacting with a silicon fiducial mark (not to scale). (b) Optical layout for back-scattered detection (BSD). Two diode lasers [λ = 810 nm (green dashed line), 845 nm (red dotted line)] were actively stabilized by the combination of optics shown in the gray box, see [12]. These stabilized diode lasers (SDL) were simultaneously launched from a single fiber. Each laser was independently translated in the imaging plane by mirrors conjugate to the objective’s (Obj.) back aperture. The combination of the polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and quarter-waveplate (λ/4) led to highly efficient BSD. Acronyms represent the following: diode laser (DL), optical isolator (OI), acousto-optic modulator (AOM), photodiode (PD), beam sampler (BS), and quadrant photodiode (QPD). Blue-shaded components are in optically conjugate planes. (c) Atomic force microscope image showing an array of three silicon disks (radius, r = 250 nm; height, h = 56 nm). Inset: line scan across a disk.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sensitivity of BSD signals. Records were measured while moving on one axis (thick line) while simultaneously measuring the off-axis response (thin line). Signals in x, y, and z are represented by green, red, and blue, respectively. (a) Motion in x. The lateral response was well fit by the derivative of a Gaussian (dashed line). (b) Motion in y. (c) Motion in z.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

BSD signals vary with the index of refraction of the medium and the fiducial mark. Comparison between silicon disks in water (green) and air (gold), with polystyrene beads (r = 300 nm) in water (red) for both lateral (a) and vertical (b) sensitivity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Active 3D stabilization. (a) Sample position as measured by the 845-nm laser: x 845 (green), y 845 (red), and z 845 (blue). Positions determined with the 810-nm laser were used for feedback (not shown). (b) Power spectral densities (PSD) of the stabilized data shown in (a) (red, green, and blue). Our lateral localization precision limit, deduced by measuring the same unstabilized disk with two lasers [5], was substantially lower (light green).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ultrastable scanning and uniform stepping. (a) The sample was moved in 0.5-nm steps sequentially along each axis under active stabilization. Sample position, independent of the servo-loop, was measured with the 845-nm laser [x 845 (green), y 845 (red), and z 845 (blue)]. Traces displaced for clarity. (b) Individual steps low-pass filtered to 100 Hz show uniform 0.5 nm motion. Traces displaced for clarity. (c) A histogram of pairwise distance differences (PDD) along each axis shows peaks every 0.5 nm. (d) Fourier transform of the PDD histograms in (c) reveals the power spectral density (PSD) of the data. The peak of the PSD is at 2 nm-1, as expected.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Registration. (a). The sample was moved in a series of fifteen back-and-forth 100-nm steps sequentially on each axis. The steps were actively stabilized with the 810-nm laser while the resulting motion was verified with the 845-nm laser [x 845 (green), y 845 (red), and z 845 (blue)]. (b) Mean values of step position around the starting location as a function of step number demonstrates excellent registration.

Equations (2)

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α sphere = [ m 2 1 m 2 + 2 ] 3 V 4 π ,
α Si α ps = V Si V ps [ m Si 2 1 m Si 2 + 2 m ps 2 1 m ps 2 + 2 ] = V Si V ps [ 7 . 1 ] ,

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