Abstract

We show a novel technique to distinguish between Doppler shifted and unshifted light in multiple scattering experiments on mixed static and dynamic media. With a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, optical path lengths of shifted and unshifted light and path length dependent Doppler broadening are measured in a two-layer tissue phantom, with a superficial static layer of different thickness covering a semi-infinite dynamic medium having identical optical properties. No Doppler broadening is observed until a certain optical path length depending on the thickness of the superficial static layer. From the minimum optical path length corresponding to the Doppler-shifted light the thickness of the static layer that overlies the dynamic layer can be estimated. Validation of the experimentally determined thickness of the static layer is done with the Doppler Monte Carlo technique. This approach has potential applications in discriminating between statically and dynamically scattered light in the perfusion signal and in determining superficial burn depths.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).
  2. M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 36, 740-747 (1998).Q1
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Wax, C. Yang, R.R. Dasari, and M.S. Feld, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering: modeling the transition from single to diffusive scattering," Appl. Opt. 40, 4222-4227 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K.K. Bizheva, A.M. Siegel, and D.A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E,  58 (1998).Q2
    [CrossRef]
  8. A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, and F.F.M. de Mul, "Path-length distribution and path-length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 26, 1492-1494 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. G. Yodh, P. D. Kaplan, and D. J. Pine, 'Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy - high resolution through nonlinear optical gating,' Phys. Rev. B. 42, 4744-4747 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser Doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Sadhwani, K. T. Schomacker, G. J. Tearney, and N. S. Nishioka, "Determination of Teflon thickness with laser speckle. I. Potential for burn depth diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 35, 5727-5735 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
[CrossRef]

2002

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, R.R. Dasari, and M.S. Feld, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering: modeling the transition from single to diffusive scattering," Appl. Opt. 40, 4222-4227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, and F.F.M. de Mul, "Path-length distribution and path-length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 26, 1492-1494 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

K.K. Bizheva, A.M. Siegel, and D.A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E,  58 (1998).Q2
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 36, 740-747 (1998).Q1
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

A. G. Yodh, P. D. Kaplan, and D. J. Pine, 'Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy - high resolution through nonlinear optical gating,' Phys. Rev. B. 42, 4744-4747 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Bizheva, K.K.

K.K. Bizheva, A.M. Siegel, and D.A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E,  58 (1998).Q2
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.A.

K.K. Bizheva, A.M. Siegel, and D.A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E,  58 (1998).Q2
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.R.

de Mul, F. F. M.

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, M. L. Kok, P. J. Harmsma, J. Greve, R. Graaff, and J. G. Aarnoudse, "Laser Doppler velocimetry and Monte Carlo simulations on models for blood perfusion in tissue," Appl. Opt. 34, 6595-6611 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mul, F.F.M.

Feld, M.S.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
[CrossRef]

Graaff, R.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Harmsma, P. J.

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, P. D.

A. G. Yodh, P. D. Kaplan, and D. J. Pine, 'Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy - high resolution through nonlinear optical gating,' Phys. Rev. B. 42, 4744-4747 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Kok, M. L.

Larsson, M.

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, M.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 36, 740-747 (1998).Q1
[CrossRef]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 36, 740-747 (1998).Q1
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 36, 740-747 (1998).Q1
[CrossRef]

McGrouther, D.A.

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Perry, M.E.

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petoukhova, A.L.

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, and F.F.M. de Mul, "Path-length distribution and path-length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 26, 1492-1494 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

A. G. Yodh, P. D. Kaplan, and D. J. Pine, 'Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy - high resolution through nonlinear optical gating,' Phys. Rev. B. 42, 4744-4747 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Price, B.D.

J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajan, V.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, A.H.N.

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royle, G.

J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
[CrossRef]

Sadhwani, A.

Schomacker, K. T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A.M.

K.K. Bizheva, A.M. Siegel, and D.A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E,  58 (1998).Q2
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, and F.F.M. de Mul, "Path-length distribution and path-length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 26, 1492-1494 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strömberg, T.

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tyler, M.P.H.

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Leeuwen, T.G.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, B.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, A.M.I.

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Yang, C.

Yodh, A. G.

A. G. Yodh, P. D. Kaplan, and D. J. Pine, 'Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy - high resolution through nonlinear optical gating,' Phys. Rev. B. 42, 4744-4747 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A.L. Petoukhova, W. Steenbergen, T.G. van Leeuwen and F. F. M. de Mul, "Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 595-597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burns

A.M.I. Watts, M.P.H. Tyler, M.E. Perry, A.H.N. Roberts, D.A. McGrouther, "Burn depth and its histological measurement," Burns 27, 154-160 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, and T. Strömberg, "Influence of optical properties and fibre separation on laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 236-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Path length resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase modulated low coherence interferometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Bio. Eng. Comp.

A. Liebert, M. Leahy and R. Maniewski, "Multichannel laser-Doppler probe for blood perfusion measurements with depth discrimination," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 36, 740-747 (1998).Q1
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T.G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, "Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry," Opt. Express. 15(15), 9157-9165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Bio.

J. C. Hebden, B.D. Price, A. P. Gibson and G. Royle, "A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Bio. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).Q3
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

A. G. Yodh, P. D. Kaplan, and D. J. Pine, 'Pulsed diffusing-wave spectroscopy - high resolution through nonlinear optical gating,' Phys. Rev. B. 42, 4744-4747 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

K.K. Bizheva, A.M. Siegel, and D.A. Boas, "Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. E,  58 (1998).Q2
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. P. Shepherd and P. Å. Öberg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical modulation peak appearing in the power spectra measured for short and large optical path lengths (Top). Schematic diagram of the light propagation through a two-layer scattering phantom, consisting of a top static layer and a bottom dynamic layer with same optical properties (Bottom). The model used for the estimation of the thickness (Inset).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical path length distributions of non-shifted and Doppler shifted photons, measured for a two-layer tissue phantom consisting of a top static layer of thickness 0.1 mm and a bottom dynamic layer of thickness 20mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical path length distributions of non-shifted and Doppler shifted photons, measured for a two-layer tissue phantom consisting of a top static layer of thickness 0.7 mm and a bottom dynamic layer of thickness 20mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The fraction of Doppler shifted and non-shifted photons (summed over all optical path lengths) estimated for different thickness of the superficial static layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The average Doppler shift extracted from the FWHM of the phase modulation peak, as a function of the optical path length through the scattering medium, for various thickness of the static layer (0–.0.9 mm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The path length dependent Doppler broadening of multiply scattered light obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for various static layer thickness (0–0.9 mm).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Thickness of the superficial static layer (including two glass layers) estimated from the path length dependent Doppler broadening. Experimental results (squares) and Monte Carlo simulations (circles).

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