Abstract

We have fabricated and characterized a lattice of submicron cone-shaped holes on a SiO2/Si wafer. Reflectivity profiles as a function of angle of incidence and polarization, phase shift and spectrometry are obtained for several fluids with different refractive indexes filling the holes. The optical setup allows measuring in the center of a single hole and collecting all data simultaneously, which can be applied for measuring extremely low volumes of fluid (in the order of 0.1 femtolitres) and label-free immunoassays, as it works as a refractive index sensor. A three layer film stack model is defined to perform theoretical calculations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Monat, P. Domachuck, and B. J. Eggleton. "Integrated Optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel. "Photonic crystal waveguide biosensor," Opt. Express 15,3169-3176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

2006 (4)

R. Ince and R. Narayanaswamy, "Analysis of the performance of interferometry, surface plasmon resonance and luminescence as biosensors and chemosensors. Review," Anal. Chim. Acta 569,1-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang. "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson. "Surface-Plasmon like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material," Sens. Actuators B 105, 360-364 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

W-C. Kuo and C. Chou. "Optical heterodyne surface-plasmon resonance biosensor," Opt. Lett. 28, 1329-1331 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, "Realization of a multichannel integrated Young interferometer chemical sensor," Appl. Opt. 42,5649-5660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

H. Arwin. "Ellipsometry on thin organic layers of biological interest: characterization and applications," Thin Solid Films 377-378, 48-56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert. "Numerical techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius. "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul. G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel. "Fixed polarizer ellipsometry for simple and sensitive detection of thin films generated by specific molecular interactions: applications in immunoassays and DNA sequence detection," Clin. Chem. 44, 2031-2035 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz. "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators 15, 285-295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alvine, K. J.

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arwin, H.

H. Arwin. "Ellipsometry on thin organic layers of biological interest: characterization and applications," Thin Solid Films 377-378, 48-56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

Black, C. T.

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolger, J. A.

Borel, P. I.

Brand, S.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, K.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

Chen, J.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.

Chow, E.

Cross, G. H.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dancil, K-P. S.

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domachuck, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuck, and B. J. Eggleton. "Integrated Optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu. "Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Domínguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuck, and B. J. Eggleton. "Integrated Optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, and B. J. Eggleton. "Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer," Opt. Express 12, 5440-5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu. "Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

Fainman, Y.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Fanton, J.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fanton, J. T.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

D. H. Luo, R. A. Levy, Y. F. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. M. Pafchek. "An integrated photonic sensor for in situ monitoring of hazardous organics," Sens. actuators B 92, 121-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foley, C. P.

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frandsen, L. H.

Freeman, N. J.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuto, M.

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gang, O.

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghadir, M. R.

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girolami, G.

Gopinath, A.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert. "Numerical techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Grillet, C.

Groisman, A.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

Gu, M.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu. "Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Harris, R. D.

Heideman, R. G.

Helfert, S.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert. "Numerical techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hollenbach, U.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hor, Y. F.

D. H. Luo, R. A. Levy, Y. F. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. M. Pafchek. "An integrated photonic sensor for in situ monitoring of hazardous organics," Sens. actuators B 92, 121-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ince, R.

R. Ince and R. Narayanaswamy, "Analysis of the performance of interferometry, surface plasmon resonance and luminescence as biosensors and chemosensors. Review," Anal. Chim. Acta 569,1-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

Kanger, J. S.

Kelso, S. M.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kjems, J.

Kristensen, M.

Kuo, W-C.

Lambeck, P. V.

Lechuga, L. M.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. M.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Leng, J. M.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Levy, R. A.

D. H. Luo, R. A. Levy, Y. F. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. M. Pafchek. "An integrated photonic sensor for in situ monitoring of hazardous organics," Sens. actuators B 92, 121-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, V. S-Y.

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lo, C. T.

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lousse, V.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Luff, B. J.

Lukosz, W.

M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz. "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators 15, 285-295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Luo, D. H.

D. H. Luo, R. A. Levy, Y. F. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. M. Pafchek. "An integrated photonic sensor for in situ monitoring of hazardous organics," Sens. actuators B 92, 121-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mägi, E.

Maul, D.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul. G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel. "Fixed polarizer ellipsometry for simple and sensitive detection of thin films generated by specific molecular interactions: applications in immunoassays and DNA sequence detection," Clin. Chem. 44, 2031-2035 (1998).
[PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W. M.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuck, and B. J. Eggleton. "Integrated Optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motesharei, K.

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayanaswamy, R.

R. Ince and R. Narayanaswamy, "Analysis of the performance of interferometry, surface plasmon resonance and luminescence as biosensors and chemosensors. Review," Anal. Chim. Acta 569,1-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neeves, K. B.

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nellen, M.

M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz. "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators 15, 285-295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu. "Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ocko, B. M.

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olbricht, W. L.

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opsal, J.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostroff, R. M.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul. G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel. "Fixed polarizer ellipsometry for simple and sensitive detection of thin films generated by specific molecular interactions: applications in immunoassays and DNA sequence detection," Clin. Chem. 44, 2031-2035 (1998).
[PubMed]

Pafchek, R. M.

D. H. Luo, R. A. Levy, Y. F. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. M. Pafchek. "An integrated photonic sensor for in situ monitoring of hazardous organics," Sens. actuators B 92, 121-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peel, L. L.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pershan, P. S.

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piehler, J.

Popplewell, J. F.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pregla, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert. "Numerical techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang. "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang. "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, A. A.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritz, K.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. M.

M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson. "Surface-Plasmon like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material," Sens. Actuators B 105, 360-364 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltzman, W. M.

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarro, P. M.

Scarmozzino, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert. "Numerical techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schiffrin, D. J.

Senko, M.

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sepúlveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, M.

M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson. "Surface-Plasmon like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material," Sens. Actuators B 105, 360-364 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

Skivesen, N.

Straub, M.

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu. "Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swann, M. J.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ta’eed, V.

Têtu, A.

Tiefenthaler, K.

M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz. "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators 15, 285-295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wijn, R.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Willenborg, D. L.

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang. "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S.

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ymeti, A.

Zeni, L.

Zhang, J.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

R. Ince and R. Narayanaswamy, "Analysis of the performance of interferometry, surface plasmon resonance and luminescence as biosensors and chemosensors. Review," Anal. Chim. Acta 569,1-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Domachuck, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu. "Microfluidic tunable photonic band-gap device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838-1840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman. "On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107-111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso and J. T. Fanton. "Beam profile reflectometry: A new technique for dielectric film measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1301-1303 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman. "A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterization," Biosens. Bioelectron. 19, 383-390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (1)

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul. G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel. "Fixed polarizer ellipsometry for simple and sensitive detection of thin films generated by specific molecular interactions: applications in immunoassays and DNA sequence detection," Clin. Chem. 44, 2031-2035 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, and A. Rosencwaig. "Multiparameter measurements of thin films using beam-profile reflectometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 7036-7040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Control. Release (1)

K. B. Neeves, C. T. Lo, C. P. Foley, W. M. Saltzman, and W. L. Olbricht. "Fabrication and characterization of microfluidic probes for convection enhanced drug delivery," J. Control. Release 111,252-262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert. "Numerical techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga. "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications," Nanotechnology 14,907-912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuck, and B. J. Eggleton. "Integrated Optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang. "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, J. S. Harris. "Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing," Proc. SPIE 6447, 2-9 (2007).

Science (1)

V. S-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir. "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators (1)

M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, and W. Lukosz. "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators 15, 285-295 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

J. Homola, S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson. "Surface-Plasmon like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material," Sens. Actuators B 105, 360-364 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

H. Arwin. "Ellipsometry on thin organic layers of biological interest: characterization and applications," Thin Solid Films 377-378, 48-56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Leng, J. Chen, J. Fanton, M. Senko, K. Ritz, and J. Opsal. "Characterization of titanium nitride TiN films on various substrates using spectrophotometry, beam profile reflectometry, beam profile ellipsometry and spectroscopic beam profile ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 308-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

M. J. Weber. Handbook of optical materials (C.R.C. Press L.L.C., 2003).

O. Gang, K. J. Alvine, M. Fukuto, P. S. Pershan, C. T. Black, and B. M. Ocko. "Liquids on topologically nanopatterned surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217801-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hecht and A. Zajac. Optics, (Addisson-Westley Publishing Company, 1974).

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene. Handbook of Ellipsometry (William Andrew Inc., 2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, and R. Baets, "Functional Silicon Wire Waveguides," Proceedings from the conference "Integrated Photonics Research and Application, Nanophotonics, OSA Topical Meetings" (2006).

D. H. Luo, R. A. Levy, Y. F. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. M. Pafchek. "An integrated photonic sensor for in situ monitoring of hazardous organics," Sens. actuators B 92, 121-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM micrographs of the sensing structure. (a) Cross section. (b) Top view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Proposed sub-micron sensing structure and a schematic representation of the optical techniques employed. When the laser beam is focused in the center of a sub-micro-hole, each half of the reflectivity profiles must be symmetrical.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Film stack model for theoretical calculations. (a). Theoretical model applied for BPE and BPR. (b). Theoretical model for Spectrometry. (c) Three layer model film stack.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculation of neff. (a) Laser spot size of 0.9 μm and field distribution at 1.38 μm in depth for BPE and BPR. (b) White light spot size of 2.5 μm and field distribution. A gausian beam with different width is simulated in both cases. The holes lattice confine the field around the center hole by photonic crystal effect. To ensure a good confinement there must be a minimum of three rings of holes surrounding the centre hole.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical BPR Spectra profiles. (a) s-polarization. (b) p-polarization

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BPR experimental spectra profiles. (a) s-polarized. (b) p-polarized.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dip position experimental and theoretical. (a) s polarization. (b) p polarization.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). Theoretical and experimental data for Rdiff. (b) Ellipsometric theoretical ∆ for angle of incidence of 26°.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectrometry profiles. (a) Experimental. (b) Theoretical

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Dip position for VIS. Experimental, theoretical and linearly fitted data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results for layer 2 (SiO2-fluid neff calculations). BPE/BPR and Spectrometry neff are different. In BPR/BPE is lower because the fraction of liquid volume is higher.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n min = θ resolution x d n fluid d θ dipposition
Δ n min = Rdiff resolution x d n fluid dRdiff
Δ n min = λ resolution x d n fluid d λ dipposition

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