Abstract

Raman spectroscopy is a vibration spectroscopic technique that has been widely used to probe biochemical changes of biological sample such as tumor tissue, blood cells, bacteria and yeast. Here, we applied near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to analyze the chemical composition changes of intact or swollen mitochondria induced by calcium ions. We used a confocal Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy (LTRS) system that combined optical trapping and near infrared Raman spectroscopy to confine a single mitochondrion and consequently measure its Raman spectra following the addition of calcium ion solution. We analyzed Raman spectra of mitochondria isolated from rat liver, heart muscle and kidney, respectively. The major Raman peaks at 1654, 1602, 1446, 1301 and 1226 cm−1 were observed from individual intact mitochondria. We examined the differences in near infrared spectra between intact and Ca2+ damaged mitochondria. We found that after the exposure of the intact mitochondria to the 100 μM Ca2+ solution the band of 1602 cm−1 decreased very rapidly in the first period and then disappeared after 30minutes, while the intensities of the phospholipids and protein bands changed slowly in the first period and then suddenly disappeared, corresponding to the Ca2+ induced swelling process. These results demonstrate the potential of LTRS technique as a valuable tool for the study of bioactivity and molecular composition of mitochondria.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Chen, S. S. Huang, and Y.Q. Li, "Real-time Detection of Kinetic Germination and Heterogeneity of Single Bacillus Spores by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 78, 6936-6941 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, and H. Hamaguhci. "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019. (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Toshinari, S. Kuroiwa, T. Ogura, and S Yoshikawa, "Probing the oxygen activation reaction in intact whole mitochondria through analysis of molecular vibrations," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 9970-9971 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, T. Ogura and H. Hamaguhci, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, C. Goodman, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Real-time Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped living cells and organelles," Opt. Express 12, 6209-6214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Berezhna, H. Wohlrab, P. M. Champion, "Resonance Raman investigations of cytochrome C conformational change upon interaction with the membranes of intact and Ca2+-exposed mitochondria," Biochemistry. 42, 6149-6158 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, "Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects," BJU Int. 92, 400-407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

C. Batandier, E. Fontaine, C. Keriel, and X. M. Leverve. "Determination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: methodological aspects," J Cell Mol Med. 6, 175-87. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells," Opt. Lett. 27, 249-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, "Raman spectra and optical trapping of highly refractive and nontransparent particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. R. Wood, B. Tait, and D. McNaughton, "Micro-Raman characterisation of the R to T state transition of haemoglobin within a single living erythrocyte," Biochem. Biophys.Acta. 1539, 58-70 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

S. S. Smaili, Y. T. Hsu, R. J. Youle, and J. T. Russell, "Mitochondria in Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis," J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 32, 35-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Schuster, E. Urlaub, and J. R. Gapes, "Single-cell analysis of bacteria by Raman microscopy: spectral information on the chemical composition of cells and on the heterogeneity in a culture," J. Microbiol Meth. 42, 29-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science. 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, M. J. Schnitzer, and S. M. Block, "Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp," Nature. 400, 184-189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. Otto, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, "Confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the activation of single neutrophilic granulocytes," Eur. Biophys. J. 27, 582-589 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. A. Proshlyakov, T. Ogura, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, S. Yoshikawa, E. H. Appelman, T. Kitagawa, "Selective resonance Raman observation of the "607 nm" form generated in the reaction of oxidized cytochrome C oxidase with hydrogen peroxide," J Biol Chem. 269, 29385-29388 (1994).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

W. H. Nelson, R. Manoharan, and J. F. Sperry, "UV resonance Raman studies of bacteria," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 27, 67-124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. J. Puppels, J. H. Olminkhof, G. M. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. Mul de, and J. Greve, "Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light," Exp Cell Res. 195, 361-367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, K. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, "Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams," Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

E. O. Fuller, D. I. Goldberg, J. W. Starnes, L. M. Sacks, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, "Mitochondrial respiration following acute hypoxia in the perfused rat heart," J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17, 71-81 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

S. Fleischer, G. Rouser, B. Fleischer, A. Casu, and G. Kritchevsky, "Lipid composition of mitochondria from bovine heart, liver and kidney," J. Lipid. Res. 8, 170 (1967).
[PubMed]

D. Johnson and H. Lardy, "Isolation of liver or kidney mitochondria," Methods. Enzymol. 10, 94-96 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. B. Chappell and A. R. Crofts, "Calcium ion accumulation and volume changes of isolated liver mitochondria. Calcium ion-induced swelling," Biochem. J. 95, 378-386 (1965).
[PubMed]

Appelman, E. H.

D. A. Proshlyakov, T. Ogura, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, S. Yoshikawa, E. H. Appelman, T. Kitagawa, "Selective resonance Raman observation of the "607 nm" form generated in the reaction of oxidized cytochrome C oxidase with hydrogen peroxide," J Biol Chem. 269, 29385-29388 (1994).
[PubMed]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, K. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, "Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams," Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batandier, C.

C. Batandier, E. Fontaine, C. Keriel, and X. M. Leverve. "Determination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: methodological aspects," J Cell Mol Med. 6, 175-87. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berezhna, S.

S. Berezhna, H. Wohlrab, P. M. Champion, "Resonance Raman investigations of cytochrome C conformational change upon interaction with the membranes of intact and Ca2+-exposed mitochondria," Biochemistry. 42, 6149-6158 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

K. Visscher, M. J. Schnitzer, and S. M. Block, "Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp," Nature. 400, 184-189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruining, H. A.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casu, A.

S. Fleischer, G. Rouser, B. Fleischer, A. Casu, and G. Kritchevsky, "Lipid composition of mitochondria from bovine heart, liver and kidney," J. Lipid. Res. 8, 170 (1967).
[PubMed]

Champion, P. M.

S. Berezhna, H. Wohlrab, P. M. Champion, "Resonance Raman investigations of cytochrome C conformational change upon interaction with the membranes of intact and Ca2+-exposed mitochondria," Biochemistry. 42, 6149-6158 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chappell, J. B.

J. B. Chappell and A. R. Crofts, "Calcium ion accumulation and volume changes of isolated liver mitochondria. Calcium ion-induced swelling," Biochem. J. 95, 378-386 (1965).
[PubMed]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, S. S. Huang, and Y.Q. Li, "Real-time Detection of Kinetic Germination and Heterogeneity of Single Bacillus Spores by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 78, 6936-6941 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choo-Smith, L. P.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crofts, A. R.

J. B. Chappell and A. R. Crofts, "Calcium ion accumulation and volume changes of isolated liver mitochondria. Calcium ion-induced swelling," Biochem. J. 95, 378-386 (1965).
[PubMed]

Crow, P.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, "Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects," BJU Int. 92, 400-407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

E. O. Fuller, D. I. Goldberg, J. W. Starnes, L. M. Sacks, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, "Mitochondrial respiration following acute hypoxia in the perfused rat heart," J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17, 71-81 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinno, M. A.

C. A. Xie, C. Goodman, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Real-time Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped living cells and organelles," Opt. Express 12, 6209-6214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells," Opt. Lett. 27, 249-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dinno, M.A.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, K. M.

A. Ashkin, K. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, "Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams," Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, H. G.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endtz, H. P.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, B.

S. Fleischer, G. Rouser, B. Fleischer, A. Casu, and G. Kritchevsky, "Lipid composition of mitochondria from bovine heart, liver and kidney," J. Lipid. Res. 8, 170 (1967).
[PubMed]

Fleischer, S.

S. Fleischer, G. Rouser, B. Fleischer, A. Casu, and G. Kritchevsky, "Lipid composition of mitochondria from bovine heart, liver and kidney," J. Lipid. Res. 8, 170 (1967).
[PubMed]

Fontaine, E.

C. Batandier, E. Fontaine, C. Keriel, and X. M. Leverve. "Determination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: methodological aspects," J Cell Mol Med. 6, 175-87. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, E. O.

E. O. Fuller, D. I. Goldberg, J. W. Starnes, L. M. Sacks, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, "Mitochondrial respiration following acute hypoxia in the perfused rat heart," J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17, 71-81 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gapes, J. R.

K. C. Schuster, E. Urlaub, and J. R. Gapes, "Single-cell analysis of bacteria by Raman microscopy: spectral information on the chemical composition of cells and on the heterogeneity in a culture," J. Microbiol Meth. 42, 29-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gemperline, P. J.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, D. I.

E. O. Fuller, D. I. Goldberg, J. W. Starnes, L. M. Sacks, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, "Mitochondrial respiration following acute hypoxia in the perfused rat heart," J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17, 71-81 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, C.

C. A. Xie, C. Goodman, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Real-time Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped living cells and organelles," Opt. Express 12, 6209-6214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C. Otto, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, "Confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the activation of single neutrophilic granulocytes," Eur. Biophys. J. 27, 582-589 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguhci, H.

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, and H. Hamaguhci. "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019. (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, T. Ogura and H. Hamaguhci, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, E. B.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heule, F.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y. T.

S. S. Smaili, Y. T. Hsu, R. J. Youle, and J. T. Russell, "Mitochondria in Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis," J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 32, 35-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. S.

D. Chen, S. S. Huang, and Y.Q. Li, "Real-time Detection of Kinetic Germination and Heterogeneity of Single Bacillus Spores by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 78, 6936-6941 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, and H. Hamaguhci. "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019. (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, T. Ogura and H. Hamaguhci, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D.

D. Johnson and H. Lardy, "Isolation of liver or kidney mitochondria," Methods. Enzymol. 10, 94-96 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jr, J. S.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karashima, T.

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, and H. Hamaguhci. "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019. (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, T. Ogura and H. Hamaguhci, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, C. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, "Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects," BJU Int. 92, 400-407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keriel, C.

C. Batandier, E. Fontaine, C. Keriel, and X. M. Leverve. "Determination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: methodological aspects," J Cell Mol Med. 6, 175-87. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitagawa, T.

D. A. Proshlyakov, T. Ogura, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, S. Yoshikawa, E. H. Appelman, T. Kitagawa, "Selective resonance Raman observation of the "607 nm" form generated in the reaction of oxidized cytochrome C oxidase with hydrogen peroxide," J Biol Chem. 269, 29385-29388 (1994).
[PubMed]

Koo, T. W.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, J. R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kritchevsky, G.

S. Fleischer, G. Rouser, B. Fleischer, A. Casu, and G. Kritchevsky, "Lipid composition of mitochondria from bovine heart, liver and kidney," J. Lipid. Res. 8, 170 (1967).
[PubMed]

Kros, J. M.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Jr. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers. 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroiwa, S.

T. Toshinari, S. Kuroiwa, T. Ogura, and S Yoshikawa, "Probing the oxygen activation reaction in intact whole mitochondria through analysis of molecular vibrations," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 9970-9971 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Lardy, H.

D. Johnson and H. Lardy, "Isolation of liver or kidney mitochondria," Methods. Enzymol. 10, 94-96 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Leverve, X. M.

C. Batandier, E. Fontaine, C. Keriel, and X. M. Leverve. "Determination of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: methodological aspects," J Cell Mol Med. 6, 175-87. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, C. Goodman, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Real-time Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped living cells and organelles," Opt. Express 12, 6209-6214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, and Y. Q. Li, "Raman spectra and optical trapping of highly refractive and nontransparent particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 951-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells," Opt. Lett. 27, 249-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.Q.

D. Chen, S. S. Huang, and Y.Q. Li, "Real-time Detection of Kinetic Germination and Heterogeneity of Single Bacillus Spores by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 78, 6936-6941 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mace, J.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Nelson, R. Manoharan, and J. F. Sperry, "UV resonance Raman studies of bacteria," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 27, 67-124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maquelin, K.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNaughton, D.

B. R. Wood, B. Tait, and D. McNaughton, "Micro-Raman characterisation of the R to T state transition of haemoglobin within a single living erythrocyte," Biochem. Biophys.Acta. 1539, 58-70 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, A. D.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science. 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naito, Y.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, W. H.

W. H. Nelson, R. Manoharan, and J. F. Sperry, "UV resonance Raman studies of bacteria," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 27, 67-124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Newton, R. J.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ogura, T.

T. Toshinari, S. Kuroiwa, T. Ogura, and S Yoshikawa, "Probing the oxygen activation reaction in intact whole mitochondria through analysis of molecular vibrations," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 9970-9971 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamanoto, T. Ogura and H. Hamaguhci, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Proshlyakov, T. Ogura, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, S. Yoshikawa, E. H. Appelman, T. Kitagawa, "Selective resonance Raman observation of the "607 nm" form generated in the reaction of oxidized cytochrome C oxidase with hydrogen peroxide," J Biol Chem. 269, 29385-29388 (1994).
[PubMed]

Olminkhof, J. H.

G. J. Puppels, J. H. Olminkhof, G. M. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. Mul de, and J. Greve, "Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light," Exp Cell Res. 195, 361-367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, C.

C. Otto, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, "Confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the activation of single neutrophilic granulocytes," Eur. Biophys. J. 27, 582-589 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, J. H. Olminkhof, G. M. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. Mul de, and J. Greve, "Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light," Exp Cell Res. 195, 361-367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persad, R. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, "Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects," BJU Int. 92, 400-407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proshlyakov, D. A.

D. A. Proshlyakov, T. Ogura, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, S. Yoshikawa, E. H. Appelman, T. Kitagawa, "Selective resonance Raman observation of the "607 nm" form generated in the reaction of oxidized cytochrome C oxidase with hydrogen peroxide," J Biol Chem. 269, 29385-29388 (1994).
[PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, J. H. Olminkhof, G. M. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. Mul de, and J. Greve, "Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light," Exp Cell Res. 195, 361-367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rief, M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science. 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert-Nicoud, M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouser, G.

S. Fleischer, G. Rouser, B. Fleischer, A. Casu, and G. Kritchevsky, "Lipid composition of mitochondria from bovine heart, liver and kidney," J. Lipid. Res. 8, 170 (1967).
[PubMed]

Russell, J. T.

S. S. Smaili, Y. T. Hsu, R. J. Youle, and J. T. Russell, "Mitochondria in Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis," J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 32, 35-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, L. M.

E. O. Fuller, D. I. Goldberg, J. W. Starnes, L. M. Sacks, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, "Mitochondrial respiration following acute hypoxia in the perfused rat heart," J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17, 71-81 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

K. Visscher, M. J. Schnitzer, and S. M. Block, "Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp," Nature. 400, 184-189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuster, K. C.

K. C. Schuster, E. Urlaub, and J. R. Gapes, "Single-cell analysis of bacteria by Raman microscopy: spectral information on the chemical composition of cells and on the heterogeneity in a culture," J. Microbiol Meth. 42, 29-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Segers-Nolten, G. M.

G. J. Puppels, J. H. Olminkhof, G. M. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. Mul de, and J. Greve, "Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light," Exp Cell Res. 195, 361-367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer, K. E.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T. W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shinzawa-Itoh, K.

D. A. Proshlyakov, T. Ogura, K. Shinzawa-Itoh, S. Yoshikawa, E. H. Appelman, T. Kitagawa, "Selective resonance Raman observation of the "607 nm" form generated in the reaction of oxidized cytochrome C oxidase with hydrogen peroxide," J Biol Chem. 269, 29385-29388 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sijtsema, N. M.

C. Otto, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, "Confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the activation of single neutrophilic granulocytes," Eur. Biophys. J. 27, 582-589 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science. 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smaili, S. S.

S. S. Smaili, Y. T. Hsu, R. J. Youle, and J. T. Russell, "Mitochondria in Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis," J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 32, 35-46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science. 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperry, J. F.

W. H. Nelson, R. Manoharan, and J. F. Sperry, "UV resonance Raman studies of bacteria," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 27, 67-124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spudich, J. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science. 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starnes, J. W.

E. O. Fuller, D. I. Goldberg, J. W. Starnes, L. M. Sacks, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, "Mitochondrial respiration following acute hypoxia in the perfused rat heart," J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17, 71-81 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, R. A. Persad, and M. P. Wright, "Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects," BJU Int. 92, 400-407 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tait, B.

B. R. Wood, B. Tait, and D. McNaughton, "Micro-Raman characterisation of the R to T state transition of haemoglobin within a single living erythrocyte," Biochem. Biophys.Acta. 1539, 58-70 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, W.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M.A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Toh-e, A.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toshinari, T.

T. Toshinari, S. Kuroiwa, T. Ogura, and S Yoshikawa, "Probing the oxygen activation reaction in intact whole mitochondria through analysis of molecular vibrations," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 9970-9971 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Urlaub, E.

K. C. Schuster, E. Urlaub, and J. R. Gapes, "Single-cell analysis of bacteria by Raman microscopy: spectral information on the chemical composition of cells and on the heterogeneity in a culture," J. Microbiol Meth. 42, 29-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Vreeswijk, T.

K. Maquelin, L. P. Choo-Smith, T. van Vreeswijk, B. Smith, H. A. Bruining, H. P. Endtz, and G. J. Puppels, "Raman spectroscopic method for identification of clinically relevant microorganisms growing on solid culture medium," Anal. Chem. 72, 12-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visscher, K.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

NIR Raman spectra (averaged from more than 30 mitochondria) and images of single intact mitochondria. The acquisition time was 90.0 s with 15 mW excitation power at 785 nm. (a) the spectrum of heart mitochondria; (b) the spectrum of mitochondria isolated from rat kidney; (c) the spectrum of liver mitochondria, curve d, e, f, each is a difference between liver and heart muscle, liver and kidney, heart muscle and kidney, respectively. The insets show the images of single trapped mitochondria isolated from heart muscle (a), kidney (b) and liver (c). The scale bar is 2 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of NIR Raman spectra of intact and Ca2+ induced swollen mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated from liver (1 mg of protein) were suspended in the same buffer. Raman spectra of single trapped mitochondria at different times after addition of 100 μM Ca2+ to mitochondrial suspension.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). The averaged intensities of the mitochondria Raman bands 1602, 1446, and 1655 cm−1 as a function of exposure time to Ca2+. (b) The average intensities of 1602, 1446 and 1655 cm−1 bands as the function of time since single mitochondria are trapped in the laser beam in buffer without adding Ca2+ solution. The smooth curve is a forth-order polynomial functional fit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Raman bands for mitochondrial (averaged over 30 mitochondria) and their tentative assignments.

Metrics